Workplace mobbing and bullying are closely related but not identical social phenomena in which an employee is humiliated and put under sustained duress. In the case of mobbing, the employee is emotionally abused by a group of people, sometimes but not always including a supervisor. In bullying, the employee is subjected to abuse by a single person, often the supervisor. Both are examples of social pathology, with mobbing caused by misuse of the power of numbers and bullying usually caused by misuse of the power of position. In many cases, mobbing and bullying are unrecognized or ignored by upper management and are not confronted and stopped, leading to great suffering by the target and to enormous losses in productivity. Resignation or dismissal from employment is frequently an outcome for targets.