REDUCTION: minimize how many animals are used.
REFINEMENT: use techniques and procedures that minimize pain and distress.
REPLACEMENT: substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.
Adapted from: Russel, WMS and RL Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare: England, 238 p.
For further information, please consult:
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact any of the following:
Susan Foster Harper