REDUCTION: minimize how many animals are used.
REFINEMENT: use techniques and procedures that minimize pain and distress.
REPLACEMENT: substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.
Adapted from: Russel, WMS and RL Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare: England, 238 p.
For further information, please consult:
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact any of the following:
Susan Foster Harper
"...the performance of a database search remains the most effective and efficient method for demonstrating compliance with the requirement to consider alternatives to painful/distressful procedures."
USDA Animal Care Policy Manual (See Policy 12)
The literature search sections in eSirius must, at a minimum, include:
These databases are among the most frequently used in literature searches involving animal research. Click on the Databases tab at the top of the page for a more complete list of databases with descriptions.