Skip to main content

UKCore Template 1: 4b. Primary vs. Secondary Sources

Primary vs. Secondary Sources

When evaluating the quality of the information you are using, it is useful to identify if you are using a Primary, Secondary, or Tertiary source. By doing so, you will be able recognize if the author is reporting on his/her own firsthand experiences or relying on the views of others.

Source Type Examples
Primary
A primary source is a first person account by someone who experienced or witnessed an event. This original document has not been previously published or interpreted by anyone else.
  • First person account of an event
  • First publication of a scientific study
  • Speech or lecture
  • Original artwork
  • Handwritten manuscript
  • Letters between two people
  • A diary
  • Historical documents, e.g., the Bill of Rights
Secondary
A secondary source is one step removed from the primary original source. The author is reexamining, interpreting and forming conclusions based on the information that is conveyed in the primary source.
  • Newspaper reporting on a scientific study
  • Review of a music CD or art show
  • Biography
Tertiary
A tertiary source is further removed from the primary source. It leads the researcher to a secondary source, rather than to the primary source.
  • Index to articles
  • Library catalog