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Frontier Nursing Service Oral History Project: Frontier Nursing Service Project: FNS 101 - FNS 150

This guide will help you locate primary source oral history interviews on the Frontier Nursing Service.

Annotated Guide to the Frontier Nursing Service Oral History Project: FNS 101 - FNS 125

If not available online, audio copies and/or transcripts of the interviews in this project are available in the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History.

 

                 79OH202 FNS 101

                 JOHNNY BAKER

 Date:        April 29, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        20 min.

 Johnny Baker was a child at the time his older brother left for World War I.  After completing the eighth grade, Baker began hauling staves and later worked in the mines. He discusses life and work in the mountains and also comments upon the services his family received from "an old Indiana herb doctor."  Baker recalls little, if any, direct contact with the FNS.

 

                 79OH203 FNS 102

                 DORA FIELDS

 Date:        April 30, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        30 min.

 Dora Fields was born in Perry County, Kentucky in 1907. She completed the fourth grade before beginning to do housework for neighboring families.  Fields also discusses her mother's work as a "granny woman."  The informant relates various local beliefs and comments upon general social conditions.

 

                 79OH204 FNS 103

                 WARREN MAGGARD

 Date:        March 25, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        20 min.

 Warren Maggard grew up on Cutshin, where he completed the eighth grade.  He then worked in coal mining jobs and did some farming.  Maggard discusses social life and religious customs in the area and somewhat disparages the schools.  He eventually left Leslie County to get a better job and to provide a better education for his children. Maggard comments favorably on the services of the FNS.

 

                 79OH205 FNS 104

                 ANNIE WITT

 Date:        April 1, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:         20 min.

 Annie Witt was born in Perry County in 1914 and moved to Leslie County while still a child. She remembers various social activities and playing records on "talking machines." Witt discusses the number of deaths caused by the 1918 flu epidemic and also comments upon the custom of "graveyard meetings." Her first child was delivered by a "granny woman"and the second at the FNS hospital in Hyden.

 

                 79OH206 FNS 105

                 PAULINE LEWIS

 Date:        April 20, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        15 min.

 Pauline Lewis grew up on Baker Fork during the 1940s and later attended boarding school at Berea College's Foundation School.  She recalls the establishment of the Wolf Creek Center and the work of the FNS nurses.  Lewis particularly remembers the assistance of the FNS nurse-midwives in the birth of her children.  She also comments upon the fee structure of FNS services.

 

                 79OH207 FNS 106

                 FLORENCE BURKE

 Date:         April 4, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        30 min.

 Florence Burke grew up at Roark as the daughter of a farmer who was also a minister. She discusses social conditions, elections, and her military service during World War II. Burke describes the tradition of "granny women,"who assisted local women in childbirth. She praises the work of the FNS as "one of the greatest things that ever happened to that county" but believes that the FNS nurses of today are not committed to their purpose in the manner of earlier nurse-midwives.

 

                 79OH208 FNS 107

                 ELISHA L. CREECH

 Date:        May 16, 1979

 Location:    London, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        1 hr.

 Elisha Creech was born at Dryhill in 1900. He remembers stories about eastern Kentucky in the late 1800s and discusses local traditions as well as mountain violence. Creech talks about making a living in the mines and through the selling of ginseng. He recalls the flu epidemic of 1918 and the arrival of the FNS. Creech left Leslie County in the 1920s because he "wanted to get somewhere where it would be level enough you could stand up and not fall down."

 

                 79OH209 FNS 108

                 WALTER MORGAN

 Date:        April 11, 1979

 Location:     London, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        50 min.

 Walter Morgan was born in Hyden in 1900. He describes Hyden in the early days, including various schools, stores, and grain mills. He also discusses early residents and persons who held office in the county. Morgan performed carpentry work with his father and helped to build Hyden Hospital as well as the Big House at Wendover. He describes early roads up creek beds, the first state road, and roads constructed under the WPA. Also discussed are freight boats on the river and the 1947 flood. Morgan mentions the Morgan-Colwell shoot-out in Hyden and recalls some court cases that took place when he was young. He remembers Mary Breckinridge's arrival in Leslie County and comments favorably upon the services of the FNS. Morgan ran a business for fifteen years before moving to Laurel County.

 

                 79OH210 FNS 109

                 NINNIE SHEPHERD

 Date:        April 5, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        45 min.

 Ninnie Shepherd was born on Poll's Creek in 1907. After completing the sixth grade, she worked on the family farm and traveled to Hazard with her father to peddle various farm products. Shepherd discusses stock driving, the 1918 flu epidemic, "granny women" and herb doctors, and the coming of electricity in the 1940s. She also comments upon the work of the FNS and its contributions to the local area.

 

                 79OH211 FNS 110

                 BOB WITT and MALLIE WITT

 Date:        April 4, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        50 min.

 Mallie Witt was born in 1911 on Poll's Creek at what is now Smilax. Bob Witt was born in 1915 and moved to Leslie County at the age of fifteen. They talk about hard times during the Great Depression, and Mallie Witt remembers her father working on a WPA project for $2.40 a day. Bob Witt tells of having to hunt cows in his bare feet after a frost. Both of their children were delivered by a local midwife. Bob Witt recalls logging days, when logs were floated down the river. He also remembers when men had to work three days a year, without pay, on the local roads. Witt's first job was making corn whiskey for the largest producer of moonshine in the area; it was mostly sold by the wagonload to out-of-state distributors. Witt later worked in the coal mines. He was drafted in World War II but deferred because of his mining job. Witt recalls some doctors and herb doctors practicing in the area when he was young, but he never had any contact with the FNS.

 

                 79OH212 FNS 111

                 HOSEA FELTNER

 Date:        April 23, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        1 hr.

 Hosea Feltner was born at Flackey in 1906. As a child, she lived at Cutshin, Flackey, and eventually Hyden. After her marriage, she went back to school at Hyden when a high school was built. Feltner subsequently attended what is now Eastern Kentucky University to obtain a teaching certificate and then taught school in Hyden for many years. At a"speaking" that Feltner attended to hear a woman speak, the Morgans and the Colwells had a shoot-out in front of the Blue Wing Hotel, and people on both sides were killed in the heavy gunfire. Feltner does not remember anyone being put in jail or a trial being held. She recalls some early doctors and "granny women" and indicates some widely used home remedies. The FNS nurses delivered one of her children, and she comments upon the care she received. Feltner taught at Greasy and Rockhouse during the Great Depression. She relates how she raised money for a cooking pan and then would cook the children a hot lunch at the school. Second-hand shoes and clothing became popular items in her family's store during this period. Feltner also comments upon "Moonlight Schools" which were established to teach adults how to read and write.

 

                 79OH213 FNS 112

                 JOHN D. MUNCY

 Date:        May 15, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        40 min.

 John Muncy taught school in one-room schoolhouses for eighteen years and served as local tax commissioner for twenty-one years. He discusses life in Leslie County, including logging, coal mining, and politics. Muncy also offers extensive commentary concerning the impact of modern life upon Appalachia. He believes that the FNS has done commendable work; however, he recalls that at first the local women thought FNS uniforms very strange apparel, as they themselves did not customarily wear "britches."

 

                 79OH214 FNS 113

                 BILLY DIXON

 Date:        April 10, 1979

 Location:    London, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        1 hr. 30 min.

 Billy Dixon was born in 1903 and recounts his lifelong participation in politics in Leslie County until his retirement in 1975. His father served as sheriff for eight years and as county judge for twenty. Dixon has a law degree from the University of Kentucky and served as county judge of Leslie County from 1934 to 1938. He later was county attorney and then circuit judge for eighteen years. In addition to many political recollections, Dixon discusses coal mining, logging, the WPA, and the advent of electricity in Leslie County. He believes that Mary Breckinridge and the FNS rendered invaluable service at a time when doctors in eastern Kentucky were extremely rare and professional medical treatment was virtually unavailable.

 

                 79OH215FNS 114

                 VANCE BOWLING

 Date:         May 24, 1979

 Location:    Hurricane Creek, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:  Dale Deaton

 P.T.:         1 hr. 30 min.

 Vance Bowling gives an overview of his early life in Leslie County and indicates that he left school in the eighth grade to begin working the family farm in the 1940s. After returning from military service in the Korean War, he worked as a carpenter, a vocational education teacher, and a minister. At the time of the interview he was serving as a full-time minister for the Church of Christ. Bowling comments upon the stereotypes that he feels have been perpetuated by "outsiders." Also discussed is Richard Nixon's visit to Hyden in 1979. Bowling once did carpentry work for the FNS at Wendover. At the same time that he praises the value of FNS services, he is convinced that the FNS misrepresented the local people for the purpose of raising money. Bowling discusses attempts to unionize local coal mining operations and concludes by recounting the history of illegal liquor, prostitution, violence, and feuds in Hyden and Leslie County.

 

                 79OH216 FNS 115

                 OTT BOWLING

 Date:        May 24 and 25, 1979

 Location:    Hurricane Creek, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        3 hrs. 50 min.

 Ott Bowling was born near Wendover in 1903 and gives an extended description of life in Leslie County when he was a child. After completing the eighth grade, he worked as a coal miner, a logger, a carpenter and a stonemason, among other occupations. In this lengthy interview Bowling comments upon local politics, stock driving, unionization, moonshining, feuds, African-Americans in Leslie County, and changes in Hyden during his lifetime. In addition, he discusses Appalachian customs and dialect. Bowling knew Mary Breckinridge from the time that she first came to Leslie County. He indicates that the FNS has contributed a great deal to the area. Bowling also remarks upon the relationship between the FNS and doctors already practicing in Leslie County when the nurses arrived.

 

                 79OH217 FNS 116

                 RACHEL BOWLING and OTT BOWLING

 Date:        May 31, 1979

 Location:    Hurricane Creek, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        1 hr.

 Rachel Bowling married Ott Bowling in 1925, and they raised ten children. They have lived in Leslie County almost all their lives. Rachel Bowling discusses her life as a homemaker and the details of washing, cooking, and caring for livestock. She tells how to spin wool and indicates that her children's clothes were ordered from the Montgomery Ward catalog twice a year. Ott Bowling discusses the pride they took in their home and family. The Bowlings also talk about the medical needs of a large family and comment upon their association with the FNS nurse-midwives.

 

                 79OH218 FNS 117

                 LAURA DAY HOGG

                 Date:         May 29, 1979

 Location:    Keavy, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        1 hr.

 Laura Hogg grew up in Leslie County during the 1920s and 1930s. Her father worked as a "truck patch peddler," selling items produced on their farm. After attending Stinnett Settlement School and Hyden High School, Hogg began working as a housekeeper for a number of families in the area. She discusses religious customs, social activities such as box suppers and pie suppers, and government assistance during the Great Depression. Hogg recalls various herb doctors and describes "granny women," who charged three dollars to deliver a baby.

 

                 79OH226 FNS 118

                 JAMES PARTON

 Date:          May 25, 1979

 Location:    New York, New York

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        55 min.

 James Parton has been a lifelong friend of Mary Breckinridge's [cousin], Brooke Alexander.  Alexander was an early FNS courier and persuaded Parton to work with him during the summers of 1929 and 1930.  A New York native, Parton recalls riding on horseback from the train station to Wendover on primitive trails.  He offers a detailed description of a courier's life, including special opportunities such as assisting a nurse-midwife during a birth.  Parton gives his impressions of Mary Breckinridge, her father (Clifton Rodes Breckinridge), and the local people.  Parton was assistant cruise director of an FNS fund raising cruise in 1933 and also served on the FNS Board of Governors for two years in the early 1970s.

 

                 79OH227 FNS 119

                 ISABEL LLOYD

 Date:        May 23, 1979

 Location:    New York, New York

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P. T.:       20 min.

 A long-time member of the New York Committee, Isabel Lloyd first visited Wendover in 1947, when her daughter served as a courier.  She recalls the trip over dirt roads to reach FNS headquarters.  Lloyd also discusses fundraising activities of the New York Committee, including the Bargain Box.

 

                 79OH228 FNS 120

                 DOROTHEA EBERHART AND ISABEL LLOYD

 Date:        May 24, 1979

 Location:    New York, New York

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        50 min.

 Dorothea Eberhart and Isabel Lloyd were members of the New York Committee.  They discuss in detail the operation of the Bargain Box as a primary fund raising activity of the FNS in New York.  The informants recall visiting Kentucky for the fiftieth anniversary of the FNS and also mention regular visits by FNS personnel to New York Committee meetings. 

 

                 79OH229 FNS 121

                 PHOEBE HAWKINS AND MARY MARTIN

 Date:         May 23, 1979

 Location:    New York, New York

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        45 min.

 Phoebe Hawkins and Mary Martin first met Mary Breckinridge in France in 1919 while working with the American Committee for Devastated France (C.A.R.D.).  In the interview they recount some of their experiences in France after World War I. Both were later associated with the New York Committee of the FNS.  They discuss Mary Breckinridge's appearances at New York Committee meetings and also the committee's fund raising efforts.  Hawkins and Martin also recall their visits to Wendover and their personal impressions of the Appalachian region.  Both women comment upon recent trends in FNS administration.  They conclude by assessing the impact of Richard Nixon's visit to Hyden not long before the interview.

 

                 79OH248 FNS 122

                 BROOKE ALEXANDER

 Date:        September 25, 1979

 Location:    New York, New York

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P. T.:       50 min.

 Brooke Alexander's mother was Mary Breckinridge's first cousin.  Born in 1912, Alexander spent his sixth winter with Mary Breckinridge and her son Breckie in Arkansas. Breckie's death was essentially kept from him, and he does not recall the occasion.  At the age of [fourteen] he spent the first of four summers as a courier at Wendover, from 1926 to 1929, and in the interview recounts his experiences in Leslie County.  Alexander served as an FNS trustee between 1962 and 1966, after which he joined the Board of Governors.  Alexander discusses his association with "Aunt Matron," as he called Mary Breckinridge, and the development of the FNS through the years.

 

                 79OH249 FNS 123

                 ANNE WINSLOW

 Date:        September 25, 1979

 Location:    New York, New York

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        20 min. 

 Anne Winslow was recruited by Marvin Breckinridge Patterson to operate an FNS office in New York City. Following her graduation from Vassar in 1930, Winslow spent the summer in Leslie County learning about the FNS, with the nurse-midwives at the hospital in Hyden or at outpost centers.  Winslow recounts various experiences from her visits to the homes of local people.  She ran the New York office for three years and was responsible for publicity, fund raising, and cooperation with the New York Committee. The extensive promotional efforts of Mary Breckinridge are also discussed.

 

                 79OH273 FNS 124

                 LOUIS HELLMAN

 Date:        November 29, 1979

 Location:    Washington, D.C.

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        50 min.

 Dr. Louis Hellman pioneered the establishment of midwifery instruction at Kings County Hospital in New York. He advocated midwifery and also government aid for medical services to the disadvantaged.  Hellman first visited Wendover in the spring of 1963 and remembers Mary Breckinridge as a "peppery woman."  He recalls long arguments with Breckinridge on the issue of government support for the FNS.  Despite their philosophical disagreements, Hellman credits Breckinridge and the FNS with "development of midwifery and rural obstetrics in the United States on an acceptable basis."

 

                 79OH274 FNS 125

                 MARY LANSING

 Date:        November 30, 1979

 Location:    Washington, D.C.

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        20 min.

 Mary Breckinridge was a friend of Mary Lansing's mother and also her grandmother.  Lansing's mother, Elizabeth Lansing, visited Wendover in 1946 to conduct research for a book about the FNS entitled Rider on the Mountains, which was published the following year.  Mary Lansing served as a courier during the summer of 1968.  She recalls assisting nurse-midwives with medical treatment and helping to transport children from the area to a hospital in Cincinnati.  Lansing, who was working in a congressional office at the time of the interview, believes that the Appalachian region is still not sufficiently understood by government leaders and outsiders in general.

Annotated Guide to the Frontier Nursing Service Oral History Project: FNS 126 - FNS 150

If not available online, audio copies and/or transcripts of the interviews in this project are available in the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History.

            

                 79OH275 FNS 126

                 MARY WILSON NEEL

 Date:        December 1, 1979

 Location:    McLean, Virginia

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        40 min.

 Mary Neel became interested in the FNS through her  mother's association with the Washington, D.C. Committee and through her friendship with Marvin Breckinridge Patterson.  She spent the summer of 1938 as a courier and until 1941 spent several months each year at the FNS.  Neel discusses her experiences as a courier and comments upon living conditions and social life at Wendover.  She recalls using donated moonshine to cure an ailing FNS horse and offers many other anecdotes.  Neel has been a long-time member of the Washington Committee, and her two daughters served as FNS couriers.  Having maintained her contact with Wendover, Neel comments upon changes in the local area and in the local area and in the operation of the FNS.

 

                 80OH29 FNS 127

                 ELIZABETH L. KALASHNIKOFF

 Date:        June 14, 1979

 Location:    Deep River, Connecticut

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        1 hr. 15 min.

 Elizabeth Kalashnikoff first met Mary Breckinridge while serving as Harper & Brothers editor for the publication of Wide Neighborhoods.  She recalls Breckinridge as an enjoyable, imaginative person with "a fine mind."  Kalashnikoff discusses her work with Breckinridge on the composition of the book.  Following its publication, the two maintained a social relationship for many years.

 

                 80OH30 FNS 128

                 ZAYDEE DEJONGE HARRIS

 Date:        June 14, 1979

 Location:    Fitzburg, Massachusetts

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        50 min.

 Zaydee Harris was associated with the American Committee for Devastated France (C.A.R.D.) as a chauffeur.  She tells of her experiences in signing up to go to France and then describes her acquaintance with Mary Breckinridge.  Harris gives many details of Breckinridge's life during this period and draws parallels between the French organization and the FNS.  Harris stayed at Wendover for part of a year after her work in France.  When Breckinridge came to Boston, Harris arranged her lectures and was responsible for her publicity.

 

                 80OH31 FNS 129

                 JOHN ROCK

 Date:        June 15, 1979

 Location:    Temple, New Hampshire

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        40 min.

 Dr. John Rock became acquainted with Mary Breckinridge through his wife, who was with Breckinridge during her work with C.A.R.D. (American Committee for Devastated France). Rock discusses his development of the birth control pill and its introduction in Leslie County as well as in Puerto Rico.  He also mentions birth control work in India.  Rock comments upon his association with Breckinridge during the time the study was conducted in Leslie County and her views concerning birth control in regard to the local population.

 

                 80OH32 FNS 130

                 MARY PENTON

 Date:        June 15, 1979

 Location:    Arlington, Massachusetts

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        55 min.

 Mary Penton attended the FNS Graduate School of  Midwifery from 1957 to 1958 after working for six months in general nursing.  The FNS paid her tuition in exchange for her agreement to stay for at least a year and a half, and Penton eventually stayed for eight and a half years.  She worked for five years at the Flat Creek Center, doing home health work as well as nursing and midwifery.  Penton discusses the operation of the center and changes in FNS policies over the years.  She also comments upon area trends in regard to birth control and family planning.  Additional topics are the different drugs used for pain during delivery and the introduction of bottle feeding in the FNS area.  Penton talks at length about the local people.

 

                  80OH33 FNS 131

                 CAROLINE STANDLEY

 Date:        June 15, 1979

 Location:    Midfield, Massachusetts

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        50 min.

 Caroline Standley first learned about the FNS in  Louisville in the early 1960s and visited Hyden in 1974  with an English nurse-practitioner.  On that trip she became aware of issues in FNS nursing such as the tradition of the academic-degree nurse versus the concept of compassionate care.  Standley also talks about fundraising with the Boston Committee and the organization of the FNS Preview.  Having joined the Board of Governors in 1976, she explains the relationship of the Board of Governors to the administration and the staff.  She emphasizes that her role has been that of an organizer and that she knows very little about nursing.  The point is made that a communication problem presently exists between the local people and the FNS concerning the operation of remaining FNS centers.  Standley also discusses the financial aspects of FNS operations. 

 

                  80OH34 FNS 132

                 MARY ANN QUARLES HAWKES

 Date:        June 16, 1979

 Location:    Newtown, Massachusetts

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        1 hr. 50 min.

 While in college, Mary Ann Hawkes worked in Leslie County with a group at the Stinnett Settlement School and began work for the FNS in 1948 in social services.  She  talks about the differences between training in social work and actually working in a place where no agencies exist to assist people in need.  Hawkes discusses the "Kentucky Mountain Male Syndrome," in which men raised in the mountains to do seasonal work could not adjust to working by a time clock.  The transition was achieved after children began meeting the school bus and became accustomed to time constraints.  Hawkes also remarks upon the impact of television upon mountain localities.  She explains her role as liaison between the FNS and the Kentucky Crippled Children Commission and talks about some child welfare cases.  Hawkes goes on to comment upon local living conditions and the influence of various technological changes in the mid-1960s.  Also discussed are the lives of the nurses at Wendover and their association with Mary Breckinridge.

 

                 80OH35 FNS 133

                 MOLLY LEE

 Date:        July 6, 1979

 Location:    Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Eliza Cope

 P.T.:        2 hrs. 5 min.

 Molly Lee was a district nurse at the Beech Fork Center in 1955.  She talks about the various creek clinics set up by the FNS in addition to the regular centers in order to reach more people.  The emphasis at this time was on home visiting, and Lee discusses the prevailing attitude among local people toward going to the hospital.  Although FNS personnel taught the people to bury their garbage and to construct outhouses, Lee expresses skepticism concerning the ultimate success of many of their efforts.  She talks about the diet of the local people and the attempts of FNS nurses and government programs to improve both nutrition and cooking methods.  Also discussed are flood relief and the effort to convince propel to build back on higher ground.  Lee explains the difficulty of obtaining government funding for Medicare and Medicaid because the small hospital lacked a sprinkler system.  She also talks about the implementation of the Family Nurse Practitioner Program in 1970.  Lee believes that it made possible the survival of the FNS after a period in which birth control methods reduced the number of midwifery calls.  Lee talks extensively about Mary Breckinridge in her last days.  In addition, the financial position of the FNS in recent years is the subject of some commentary.

 

                 80OH36 FNS 134

                 LEONARD HOWARD

 Date:        July 9, 1979

 Location:     Eureka Springs, Arkansas

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        45 min.

 After returning from World War One, Leonard Howard operated a small hillside farm and then became a blacksmith for the Frontier Nursing Service. He shoed the horses at all the outpost centers and recalls that the FNS had about forty horses at the time. Howard became night-watchman at Wendoverand would make coffee about four in the morning for Mary Breckinridge to have when she woke up. He also indicates that when she discovered that Wendover employees were bringing their lunches from home, she had a hot lunch served to them from that time on. Howard recalls a number of FNS nurses and comments that the attitude toward the local people held by some nurses was not always ideal. He also mentions some resentment toward Breckinridge concerning the way she presented the local people in fund-raising speeches. In the 1950s Howard moved to Dayton, Ohio for a time; he comments upon out-migration from the Leslie County area when people could not get jobs. It is his opinion that some personnel left the FNS because of low salaries. He praises the quality of treatment provided by the nurses.

 

                 80OH37 FNS 135

                 RUTH EICHOR

 Date:        July 16, 1979

 Location:    Eureka Springs, Arkansas

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        45 min.

 Ruth Eichor was born in 1907 in Eureka Springs and left in 1929 for a period of forty years. She recalls the town being much larger when Mary Breckinridge lived there, since many people came for the healthful effects of the water. Eichor remembers Richard Thompson, the second husband of Mary Breckinridge, when he was president of Crescent College. She describes the Thompson's son Breckie and talks about his death in Eureka Springs. She gives some information concerning local doctors and also comments upon the Thompsons' separation prior to their divorce.   

 

                 80OH38 FNS 136

                 TIM LEE CARTER

 Date:        July 21, 1979

 Location:    Beattyville, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        30 min.

 U.S. Congressman Tim Lee Carter became familiar with the FNS in 1937 during his medical career. At that time, possible funding for a new hospital was discussed with Carter by Dr. W.B. Rogers Beasley and Helen Browne. Carter visited the FNS in 1964. He discusses socialized medicine as one possibility for the operation of the FNS. Carter also gives the background of Richard Nixon's visit to Hyden in 1979 and his own assessment of Nixon as President.

 

                 80OH39 FNS 137

                 CECIL MORGAN

 Date:        July 25, 1979

 Location:    Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Eliza Cope

 P.T.:        1 hr.

 Cecil Morgan was born on Camp Creek near Wendover in 1910 and has lived on the same farm all his life. At the age of ten Morgan helped his brother saw all the logs for the Big House at Wendover. His father helped to build the house, raising logs by means of pulleys and mules. Morgan's parents worked for the FNS for eighteen years and had a small cabin at Wendover. His brother became the blacksmith. After a year of high school, Morgan left school and worked at various jobs until he began logging. His sister and a brother went to the University of Kentucky, and Morgan mentions that many people from Leslie County went to college. He tells of working on the highway during the Great Depression and taking a big lunch that might consist of meat, eggs, vegetables, apples, peaches, and cake. His family canned a great deal and always had enough to eat. Morgan and his son sawed lumber and sold it for shipbuilding during World War II. He presently logs his own land and explains how logging with horses preserves the land and logging with bulldozers destroys it. He describes Mary Breckinridge Day as it was first celebrated, with horse shows and parades as well as demonstrations of woodcraft, quilting, canning and preserving.

 

                 80OH40 FNS 138

                 EMILY MELTON and MARIE MELTON

 Date:        August 9, 1979

 Location:    Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        30 min.

 Emily Melton was born at Wooton in 1883 and attended a one-room school until she was "about twenty-one." Her family was large, and her father farmed as well as raised hogs and horses. When Melton was married, her mother delivered her children except for one stillbirth, in which she was attended by two doctors. Her husband farmed and did blacksmith work. She tells of being up before daylight to fix breakfast, working in the fields between meals, and finally washing the dishes after the rest of the family had gone to bed. Melton relates how neighbors helped each other in time of illness; also described are "quiltings" and the dances held afterward. Melton recalls several early doctors in the area but did not come into contact with FNS nurses at any point. She remembers four churches at Wooton and a number of persons who were active in establishing them. Marie Melton briefly contributes to the interview.

 

                 80OH41 FNS 139

                 KENNETH WARREN

 Date:        August 16, 1979

 Location:    Wendover, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        15 min.

 Kenneth Warren studied tropical medicine in London, England with Dr. W.B. Beasley and later visited the FNS at Dr. Beasley's invitation. He made rounds with Beasley on horseback and gave advice on liver ailments. Warren relates an anecdote concerning Mary Breckinridge on the occasion of his visit to Wendover. He also describes in detail the primitive conditions he found in Leslie County and notes the changes he observed on a recent visit. Warren assesses the value of the FNS as a paradigm for developing countries. He praises it as a successful venture that has been worked out over the course of seventy years and contrasts it with less successful programs abroad.

 

                 80OH42 FNS 140

                 FLORENCE McLAUGHLIN and MARY McLAUGHLIN

 Date:        July 16, 1979

 Location:    Eureka Springs, Arkansas

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        20 min.

 Florence McLaughlin was born in 1904 and lived in Eureka Springs at the time Mary Breckinridge was living there with here husband, Richard Thompson. McLaughlin and her sister Mary discuss what they recall of Thompson and comment upon Eureka Springs during that period.

 

                 80OH43 FNS 141

                 CARRIE M. PARKER

 Date:        September 29, 1979

 Location:    Great Falls, Virginia

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        55 min.

 Carrie Parker's mother was born in Leslie County in 1900 and went to nursing school in Philadelphia. She returned to Leslie County as a public health nurse before Mary Breckinridge began the FNS, and became acquainted with Breckinridge while working at the original hospital in Hyden. Parker herself became a junior courier for the FNS with Carlyle Carter, a cousin of Mary Breckinridge. Parker recalls her family being severely affected by union strife because of her father's involvement in the coal industry. She served as a courier in 1966 after the death of Mary Breckinridge and comments upon the change in atmosphere upon her return to the FNS. Eventually Parker joined the city committee in Washington, D.C. She reflects upon both mountain and "outside" societies from the perspective of one who has been a part of each.

 

                 80OH44 FNS 142

                 SARAH HALL and CHESTER HALL

 Date:         October 12, 1979

 Location:    Beech Fork, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Susan Schacht

 P.T.:        3 hrs. 15 min.

 Sarah Hall recalls her grandfather's stories of life during the Civil War and tales of her grandmother, a Native American who ran away from her family when she was fifteen. Hall's father was a mail carrier in the local area. She went to school at the age of four because her eight-year-old sister would not go until Hall went with her. She tells of bean stringings, log rollings, and other "workings" and of communal suppers afterward. When clinics were held by the FNS nurses for children to be vaccinated, her mother would take all of the children on two horses. Hall was married at fifteen, and her husband went to work in the coal mines. Her house was always in demand as a place to board for loggers and miners. Hall and her husband raised a number of children for other people, but the parents always reclaimed them until the Halls were finally able to keep one child brought to them with pneumonia. The FNS nurses visited her family, and she later cooked for the nurses at the Beech Fork Center and assisted them when they needed help. Hall served on the FNS committee for Leslie County, and she and her father contributed money for the establishment of the small hospital at Hyden.

 

                  80OH56 FNS 143

                 JERRY WESTON

 Date:        April 23, 1980

 Location:    Hyattsville, Maryland

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        25 min.

 Jerry Weston has a nursing degree, a Master's degree in public health, and a doctorate in health services research. Her first connection with the FNS was as project officer in the Family Nurse Practitioner Program under the Primex grant.  Funds were made available from HEW through the National Center for Health Services Research.  She worked mainly with Trudy Isaacs, who was principal investigator for the project.  Her visit to Wendover in 1975 was made to examine the records and the data base with an eye to developing a relationship between the FNS and the University of Kentucky or Yale University.  Weston sees the future role of nurse practitioners as being directed away from primary care and toward more specialized capacities.

 

                 80OH57 FNS 144

                 JULIE BRECKINRIDGE DAVIS

 Date:        April 24, 1980

Location:    Charlottesville, Virginia

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        35 min.

 Julie Davis, a great-niece of Mary Breckinridge, visited her aunt periodically at Wendover.  At the age of ten she became a junior courier and helped with the horses. Davis served as a courier during the summers of 1967 to 1969.  She comments that Breckinridge carefully screened persons wanting to visit Wendover in order to write publicity about the FNS.  Davis also talks about changes since Breckinridge's death but attributes them more to overall changes in society than to the transfer of authority within the organization.  She recalls her aunt Lees Breckinridge and discusses her personality in relation to that of her sister Mary.  In addition to contributing many personal recollections of her Aunt Mary, Davis comments upon Breckinridge's relationships with other members of her family.

 

                 80OH119 FNS 145

                 ELIZABETH LANSING

 Date:        June 6, 1980

 Location:    Cornwall, Connecticut

 Interviewer: Anne Campbell

 P.T.:        40 min.

 Elizabeth Lansing's mother was acquainted with Mary Breckinridge's brother, and Lansing recalls the visits of Mary Breckinridge when she was young. With the intention of writing a book based upon the experience of the FNS in Kentucky [Rider on the Mountains], Lansing obtained permission from Breckinridge to visit Wendover and arrived in the spring of 1948.  Lansing describes her trip and the enthusiastic welcome she received.  Besides contributing extensive recollections of Breckinridge, Lansing describes the daily routine at Wendover, including tea, sherry hour, and dinner.  She indicates that she and her editor met with Breckinridge, to discuss the manuscript when the book had been completed. 

 

                 82OH03 FNS 146

                 AGNES LEWIS

 Date:        January 5, 1979

 Location:    Maryville, Tennessee

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        2 hrs. 55 min.

 Mary Breckinridge hired Agnes Lewis in 1930, when Lewis  was about thirty, to work in the FNS records department.  Lewis describes an eventful trip to Wendover, in the course of which she had to look after two children returning from the hospital in Cincinnati.  When she arrived at Wendover, many people were leaving, and she was assuming great and unfamiliar responsibilities.  Lewis describes Mary Breckinridge and recounts some of their conversations.  She also refers to Breckinridge's father, who conducted various small projects on the grounds and lived at Wendover until his death in 1932.  Lewis goes on to discuss the drought and the Great Depression, which occurred in succession. The Red Cross came in at Breckinridge's request and determined allotments to be given to local families.  Lewis tells of Breckinridge's fall from a new horse and relates the effects of the accident.  Besides her mention of many local people who assisted the FNS, Lewis identifies a number of the FNS staff.  She handled the bills owed by the FNS during the 1930s and 1940s and indicates the difficulties faced by the organization during that period, including a flu epidemic and the necessity of cutting nurses' salaries.  Lewis comments at length upon the character of the mountain people.  She also tells of two near-lawsuits and how they were avoided.  In addition, Lewis explains the philosophy behind the regulations observed by the FNS nurses.

 

                 82OH04 FNS 147

                 MARY WISS

 Date:        February 14, 1979

 Location:    Pikeville, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        20 min.

 Mary Wiss came to the FNS as medical director in 1965 after having been a Sister of Charity in India and remained with the FNS until 1969.  She indicates some of the difficulties she encountered at the FNS concerning personnel and equipment and contrasts those circumstances with her experience in India.  Wiss believes that most of the persons seen at district clinics could as easily have come to the hospital, thus eliminating the difficulty and the expense of maintaining these centers.  She discusses the attitude of the American Medical Association toward midwives and gives her own perspective.  Wiss asserts that the local people, being much more sophisticated than formerly, and many being college educated, could have been given a larger role in the operation of the FNS than they were performing in the late 1960s.  Wiss also discusses the incidence of various health problems and of malnutrition.

 

                 82OH05 FNS 148

                 MARY WISS AND PAULINE FOX

 Date:        February 14, 1979

 Location:    Pikeville, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Dale Deaton

 P.T.:        1 hr. 5 min.

 Doctors Mary Wiss and Pauline Fox came to the FNS in 1965.  As a regional and local health officer for the previous seven years, Fox was acquainted with Mary Breckinridge.  She discusses Breckinridge's personality and character and indicates that many FNS traditions were discontinued after her death.  Both doctors comment upon the antiquated equipment in the hospital in the 1960s and the difficulty of convincing persons in charge of the organization that new equipment was needed.  Wiss and Fox left the FNS in 1969.  They mention controversy within the FNS at the time of their departure and attitudes toward their own practice on the part of FNS personnel.  Some discussion is given to how the hospital evolved from a maternity hospital to a full-service facility.

 

                 82OH06 FNS 149

                 JOLENE POWER

 Date:        August 11, 1979

 Location:    Corbin, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        55 min.

 Jolene Power was born in 1943 at Hyden Hospital.  She describes her childhood experience at the Stinnett Settlement School in Hoskinston, Kentucky and also her grandfather's sawmill business.  Power recalls soap-making, canning, and hog killing at home and also various "speakings" in town.  At one time Power and her family had to crawl through a window to escape a mudslide that had hit their house.  An herb doctor in Hyden once treated her sister, but Power indicates that her family took the services of the FNS for granted.  After the eighth grade she moved with her family to Ohio in order to be able to attend high school rather than boarding school.  Power deplores the lack of railroads, small factories, and craft industries in Leslie County. 

 

                 80OH07 FNS 150

                 BILL HENDRIX

 Date:        September 30, 1979

 Location:    London, Kentucky

 Interviewer: Sadie Stidham

 P.T.:        40 min.

 Bill Hendrix was born at Wooton in 1912.  He talks about his one-room school and activities at home on the farm.  When he left school, Hendrix went to work in the coal mines.  He details conditions in the mines and describes life in the local area in the 1920s and 1930s -  grinding corn, blacksmithing, "workings" of various kinds, weddings, singing school, and Christmas.  Hendrix also comments upon local elections, in which a number of people would refuse to vote until paid a dollar to do so.

 

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