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A Guide to the Research: Social / Cultural / Racial Issues

Presents research literature and other sources of information about first generation college students, focusing on four-year undergraduate and graduate school experiences.

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* Allyn, Bobby. Among Privileged Classmates, I'm an Outsider. The Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 56, issue 8 (October 16, 2009), pp. B32-3.
The writer, a first-generation college student from a working-class background, describes being socially excluded at a private university.

* Alvarez, Patricia Lynn. Navigating Multiple Worlds: A Grounded Theory of Latina Students' Identity as Latina First-Generation College Students. Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park. 2011.
The purpose of this study was to explore Latina students' identity as Latina first-generation college students. Constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006) was used to explore two research questions: (a) For Latina students who are the first in their family to go to college, what is their understanding of being a Latina first-generation college student? (b) What strengths do Latina first-generation college students associate with being a Latina first-generation college student? A grounded theory of Latina students' identity as Latina first-generation college students was an outcome of this study. Two interviews were conducted with 12 Latina first-generation college students enrolled at the University of Maryland. Participants were considered first-generation college students if their parents' educational background did not exceed high school in the U.S. or some postsecondary education outside of the U.S., and if a sibling had not preceded them in attending college. Participants were racially/ethnically diverse, with the majority of students identifying as Central and South American. The metaphor, navigating multiple worlds, particularly the Family Environment and the University Environment, describes the negotiation of experiences that inform Latina students' identity as Latina first-generation college students. Core identities of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Role as College Student, and Role within Family represent multiple and intersecting dimensions salient to Latina students' identity as Latina first-generation college students. Latina first-generation college students negotiated Latino/a Values and Expectations, "American" Values and Expectations, College and Family Responsibilities, Pioneering Higher Education, Responsibility to Give Back to Family and Latino/a Community, and Pressure and Pride. Living at the intersection of multiple worlds, including experiences as "the first" to attend an institution of higher education and engaging both in Latino/a culture and in "American" culture, contributed to the pressure that Latina first-generation college students experience. Latina students also received support from these distinct environments that enabled the participants to engage in culturally and educationally distinct worlds. Participants associated six strengths with being Latina first-generation college students: Family, Latino/a Culture, Spanish Language/Being Bilingual, Determination, Support Network--Prior to College and During College, and Sense of Responsibility to Help Others. This study has implications for research, theory, and practice.

* Amaro-Jimenez, Carla and Holly Hungerford-Kresser, "Implementing an Additive, College Access and Readiness Program for Latina/o High School Students in the U.S.," Current Issues in Education, Vol. 16, issue 3 (September 18, 2013), pp. 1-13.
Draws on the experiences of a diverse group of 34 first-generation college students, collected over a year, who served as peer mentors to minority and Latina/o high school students enrolled in four Title I (low-income) high schools in the Southwest U.S. The article identifies the successes and challenges of implementing an additive, college access and readiness program that aimed to not only reduce their dropout rates but to increase the number of traditionally underserved minority and Latina/o high school students seeking a post-secondary education.

* Anderson, Michelle D. University of Texas Program Demystifies Graduate School for Minority Students, Diverse Issues in Higher Education, vol. 25, issue 15 (September 4, 2008) p. 10.
Intellectual Entrepreneurship: A Cross-Disciplinary Consortium is a University of Texas program that introduces diverse students to graduate work. Attracting a significant number of underrepresented minority and first-generation students, the program enables undergraduates to work closely with graduate student mentors and faculty supervisors to develop their own research experience.

* Ashburn, Elyse. After the Deluge, the Drought? The Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 54, issue 34 (May 2 2008), pp. B5-6.
Part of a special section on college admissions and student aid. A Chronicle of Higher Education survey has explored college admissions offices' preparation for a shrinking pool of traditional applicants. Survey results showed that about 88 percent of admissions offices have a plan or are developing a plan to address demographic changes, which are likely to involve a decline in the number of white graduates and an increase in the proportion of first-generation college graduates.

* Bergerson, Amy Aldous. Exploring the Impact of Social Class on Adjustment to College: Anna's Story. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE), vol. 20, issue 1 (Jan-Feb 2007), pp. 99-119.
The purpose of this instrumental case study (Stake, 2003) is to explore the role of social class in student adjustment to the college environment. The story of Anna is presented to illustrate how social class impacts on the ability of students to participate in campus life and engage in their academic work. Anna's story is interpreted through the lens of research that examines the role of social class in the choices and experiences of college students, as well as through Bourdieu's (1977, 1987, 1993) ideas of social class reproduction. This paper contributes to the conversation about how higher education institutions respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse student population that includes working-class students, students of color and first-generation college students like Anna.

* Betances, Samuel. "How To Become an Outstanding Educator of Hispanic and African-American First-Generation College Students" in What Makes Racial Diversity Work in Higher Education: Academic Leaders Present Successful Policies and Strategies, edited by Frank W. Hale, Jr. Herndon, VA: Stylus Publishing, 2004, pp. 44-59.

* Bettencourt, Genia M. First generation students in clubs and organizations. Thesis, College STudent Services Administration, Oregon State University, 2010.
Existing literature on first generation students focuses on the challenges these students encounter in arriving at and persisting within higher education. The area of first generation student involvement, particularly within clubs and organizations on campus, is relatively unknown. In this study, I conducted nine qualitative interviews with first generation students regarding their perceptions on joining clubs and organizations. Sub-questions asked how first generation students identify and select clubs and organizations to join and what factors influence their joining and persistence. From those interviews, three themes emerged: (a) the ability to make a difference through the organization, (b) the pursuit of social and cultural capital, and (c) the desire to maximize the college experience. This information may allow practitioners to help first generation students select meaningful avenues of involvement, leading to greater persistence and satisfaction within higher education.

* Borrero, Noah,  "Shared Success: Voices of First-Generation College-Bound Latino/as Multicultural Education, vol. 18, issue 4 (Sum 2011),  pp. 24-30.
Inquiry into the academic achievement of Latino/a youth in the United States should be of major interest to teachers, administrators, families, communities, scholars, and policy makers committed to equitable multicultural education in schools. Although the diversity of Latinos is well documented, academic achievement discourse continues to lump the group together and compare achievement outcomes between Latino students and White students. In this article, that all too common narrative is challenged by presenting the voices of a group of Latino/a public high school seniors who are graduating and will be attending four-year colleges and universities. As first-generation college-bound students, their voices tell of the immense excitement and responsibility that they feel as a result of achieving this academic goal while also revealing the challenges they have overcome and the support systems they have utilized to get to this place. Their voices are presented to show that there are success stories to be told about the academic achievement of Latino youth, and to reveal the strong cultural pride that they feel as students who have beaten the odds and who want to share their successes with their families and communities. (Contains 1 table and 1 note.)

* Briggs, Michael Steven. On the Outside Looking In: A Qualitative Study of Southern Appalachian First-generation Students’ Perceptions of Higher Education. Educational Leadership Dept., Eastern Tennessee State University, 2010.
This study was designed to investigate Southern Appalachian, first-generation students’ expectations of higher education. Research indicates that many first-generation students drop out of college after only 1 semester; however, little research exists concerning the expectations and experiences of first-generation college students from Southern Appalachia. The study employs a qualitative methodology based in the tradition of grounded theory to highlight students’ experiences while encouraging the emergence of data-driven theory based on what the researcher heard. Thus, the entire study is couched in the interpretivist philosophy of research.

* Brok, Perry den, Jan van Tartwijk, Theo Wubbles and Ietje Veldman. The differential effect of the teacher-student interpersonal relationship on student outcomes for students with different ethnic backgrounds, The British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 80, pt. 2 (June 2010), pp. 199-221.
Background. The differential effectiveness of schools and teachers receives a growing interest, but few studies focused on the relevance of student ethnicity for this effectiveness and only a small number of these studies investigated teaching in terms of the teacher—student interpersonal relationship. Furthermore, the methodology employed often restricted researchers to investigating direct effects between variables across large samples of students. Aims. This study uses causal modeling to investigate associations between student background characteristics, students' perceptions of the teacher—student interpersonal relationship, and student outcomes, across and within several population subgroups in Dutch secondary multi-ethnic classes. Methods and sample. Multi-group structural equation modeling was used to investigate causal paths between variables in four ethnic groups: Dutch (N = 387), Turkish first- and second-generation immigrant students (N = 267), Moroccan first and second generation (N = 364), and Surinamese second-generation students (N = 101). Results. Different structural paths were necessary to explain associations between variables in the different (sub) groups. Different amounts of variance in student attitudes could be explained by these variables. Conclusions. The teacher—student interpersonal relationship is more important for students with a non-Dutch background than for students with a Dutch background. Results suggest that the teacher—student relationship is more important for second generation than for first-generation immigrant students. Multi-group causal model analyses can provide a better, more differentiated picture of the associations between student background variables, teacher behaviour, and student outcomes than do more traditional types of analyses.

* Bryan, Elizabeth Ann. Family involvement : impacts on post-secondary educational success for first-generation Appalachian students. University of Kentucky, 2007. Young Library - Theses 5th Floor Stacks

* Bulloch, Shawn. Peer tutoring and mentoring: A study of methodologies and strategies that impact academic achievement for African Americans in higher education. Fielding Graduate University, 2007, 100 pages.
"Academic and student affairs leaders long have acknowledged that much of students' learning takes place in curricular and extracurricular settings dominated by their peers" (Hunter, 2004, p.41). For several years, African Americans have faced adversity in higher education regarding academic and other issues. Student Support Services, a federally funded program, provides academic assistance to low-income, first-generation, and disabled students. This type of assistance would otherwise be almost unattainable due to status and class. Programs such as Student Support Services are designed to create a level field for academic mobility amongst African Americans and other minorities. Peer-tutoring, a major component of Student Support Service delivery to its participants, has positively impacted the academic state of the program's participants. This research examines the efficacy of peer-tutoring/mentoring on tutor mentors and tutees. Action research is the main method of analysis in this study which examines peer-mediated instruction in higher education. Interviews, observations, and focus group sessions were used to gather the needed data to address the research questions in the study. The study demonstrates that peer tutoring is fundamental in promoting academic mobility among African Americans. The study further recommends detailed approaches that should be components of successful tutorial regimens.

* Carey, Kevin, Graduation Rate Watch: Making Minority Student Success a Priority, Education Sector. 36 pp.
College graduation rates for minority students are often shockingly low. Most institutions have significantly lower graduation rates for black students than for white students. This report demonstrates that these high-failure rates are not inevitable: Some institutions are graduating black students at a higher rate than white students. The report describes a comprehension program developed at Florida State University in 2000 called CARE (Center for Academic Retention and Enhancement) that helps low-income, first-generation college students succeed. Its overall philosophy is to identify every piece of information students might need or stumbling block they might encounter and help them through. The report finds that what distinguishes colleges and universities that have truly made a difference on behalf of minority students is that they pay attention to graduation rates. They monitor year-to-year change, study the impact of different interventions on student outcomes, break down the numbers among different student populations, and continuously ask themselves how they could improve. The report observes that the current system of incentives, which provides too few reasons to improve college graduation rates, is comprised of a series of interlocking funding systems, governmental relationships, and market forces that combine to give institutional leaders powerful incentives to make certain kinds of decisions and not make others. The report explains how those systems work and makes the following recommendations on how they could be changed: (1) change the rankings; (2) improve graduation rate measures; (3) improve state accountability systems; (4) change funding incentives; (5) improve accreditation; and (6) move back to need-based financial aid. Appended to this document are: (1) Four-Year Colleges and Universities with Small or Nonexistent Black/White Six-Year Graduation Rate Gaps, 2001-2006; and (2) Four-Year Colleges and Universities With Large Black/White Six-Year Graduation Rate Gaps, 2001-2006. (Contains 4 tables and 27 endnotes.)

* Ceballo, Rosario. From Barrios to Yale: The Role of Parenting Strategies in Latino Families, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, vol. 26, issue 2 (May 2004) pp. 171-86.
A study was conducted to investigate the role of parents and home characteristics in the academic success of Latino students from impoverished, immigrant families, and to identify parenting practices that contribute to the academic achievement of first-generation, U.S.-born Latino students attending Yale University. Findings revealed four family background characteristics that contributed to the students' scholarly achievements: good parental commitment to the importance of education; parental facilitation of a child's autonomy; nonverbal parental expressions of support for educational targets; and the presence of supportive faculty mentors and role models in the lives of students.

* Conley, Paige A. and Maria L. Hamlin. Justice-Learning: Exploring the Efficacy with Low-Income, First-Generation College Students, Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, vol. 16, issue 1 (Fall 2009), pp. 47-58.
Higher education continues to wrestle with the challenge of engaging and retaining traditionally marginalized populations, particularly first-generation college students of color from low-income backgrounds. The typical North American campus, as a privileged space, has failed to successfully address or dismantle systems of power and difference that continue to influence national retention and graduation rates for many low-income, first-generation college students. This study presents findings from a qualitative research inquiry which indicates that a "justice-learning" curriculum, as a first-year seminar experience, can influence academic and civic engagement for students who identify as low-income, first-generation college students.

* Conrad, Sarah, Silvia Sara Canetto, David MacPhee and Samantha Farro. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering? College Student Journal, vol. 43, issue 4 (Dec 2009), pp. 1359-1369.
Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the McNair mentoring program. Ninety-two percent were first-generation in college and/or low-income; 56% were female, 40% Hispanic, and 36% White. This group of SED students mostly explained their attraction to physical sciences or engineering in terms of scientific curiosity and a passion for research. They also reported being excited about the possibility to use their science and engineering education for social purposes. Securing a good job emerged as another important motivator, particularly for male and ethnic minority respondents. These findings suggest common as well as unique reasons for majoring in physical sciences or engineering among a diversity of SED students.

* Danley, Lynette Letricia. Truths about Sojourner: African-American women and the professorship. Their struggles and their successes on negotiating promotion and tenure at a predominantly White institution. Iowa State University, 2003, 304 pages.
The primary purpose of this investigation was to explore the internal and external factors that contributed to the successful negotiation of promotion and tenure for six African American female faculty members at a selected predominantly White Doctoral Extensive Institution. Factors including individual persistence and aspiration as well as the need for institutional support continued to emerge particularly for the respondents who decided to pursue the life of academics. Survey results found that successfully navigating the promotion and tenure process for African American women depend not only on research, teaching, and service but other factors including graduate school preparation, mentoring, internal and external motivation, self-identity, spirituality, and personal commitment to serving as change agents for campus equality.

* Davenport, Mona Yvette. Examining Involvement as a Critical Factor: Perceptions from First Generation and Non-First Generation College Students
Illinois State University. Dissertation. 2010.
This study tested the perceptions of involvement components (Non-Academic Facility Usage, Intra-Racial Relations, Campus and Charleston Involvement, Faculty Interaction, Academic Facility Usage, Inter-Racial Relations, Cultural Center Usage, and Athletic Facilities Usage) for first generation and non-first generation African American and Hispanic students. Guided by Tinto's (1987, 1993) Theory of Student Departure and Alexander Astin's (1984, 1993) Theory on Student Involvement, this investigation involved 404 participants and was conducted at a liberal arts university in the Midwestern United States during the fall semester of the 2008/09 academic year. The following questions were addressed in this study: (a) How do first-generation and non-first generation students differ in terms of their experience across nine involvement components? (b) Is there a difference between African American and Hispanic students and their involvement in the nine involvement components for each ethnicity and generational group? (c) Which areas of involvement are most predictive of students' perceived likelihood to be connected to the university? and (d) How are the students' perceptions of their overall involvement predictive of their perceived likeliness to graduate? The data for this study was gathered with the Participation in Campus and Community Activities (PCCA) survey on-line. The 404 participants who completed the survey were first generation and non-first generation African American and Hispanic students. The racial composition was 82% (n = 332) African American and 18% (n = 72) Latino/Hispanic. The criteria for participation were students needed to be enrolled the year prior to fall semester of 2008. The findings suggest that there were no differences in the levels of involvement between the first generation and non-first generation students, but there were differences between the two ethnic groups (African American and Hispanic students). Additionally, the researchers examined how connected the independent variables (first generation, non-first generation, African American, and Hispanic students) were to the institution. The African American students perceived greater connectedness to the university than Hispanic students. Yet, this difference between the African American and Hispanic was not significantly different between first generation and non-first generation students (the interaction wasn't significant). The final question determined if this study's students' perceptions of their overall involvement was predictive of their perceived likeliness to graduate. The results showed that the relationship between perceived involvement and the likelihood to graduate was, at best, mild for non-first generation and African American students in this study.

* De Walt, Patrick S. Attending a Predominantly White Institution, Journal of Black Studies, vol. 42, no. 3 (April 2011), pp. 479-503.
The discourse on African American/Black identity, as illustrated by the “Obama Phenomenon,” continues to evolve as current ways of nomenclature and identifying “what is African American and/or Black identity” are, in effect, challenged by a generation of U.S.-born Africans. This case study explored the perceptions about African American/Black identity of six First Generation U.S.-Born Africans attending a predominantly White institution. The resulting narratives highlighted their perceived tensions and harmonies with Continental Africans, Generational African Americans, and, in some cases, other cultural/racial groups. Their stories offer more support for recognizing the heterogeneity within the African American/Black community. The university context serves as one of the primary sites where they engaged these tensions and harmonies concerning their racial/cultural/linguistic identities.

* Dennis, Jessica M., Jean S. Phinney and Lizette Chauteco, The Role of Motivation, Parental Support, and Peer Support in the Academic Success of Ethnic Minority First-Generation College Students, Journal of College Student Development, vol. 46, issue 3 (May-Jun 2005), pp. 223-236.
The role of personal motivational characteristics and environmental social supports in college outcomes was examined in a longitudinal study of 100 ethnic minority first-generation college students. Personal/career-related motivation to attend college in the fall was a positive predictor and lack of peer support was a negative predictor of college adjustment the following spring. Lack of peer support also predicted lower spring GPA.

* Duggan, Michael B. E-Mail as Social Capital and Its Impact on First-Year Persistence of 4-Year College Students. Journal of College Student Retention Research Theory and Practice, vol. 6, issue 2 (2004-2005), pp. 169-189.
This study addressed the influence of social capital factors on the first-year persistence of beginning first- and second-generation four-year college students. First-generation students were those students whose parents had never attended college. Second-generation students had at least one parent who attended college. A case was made for considering e-mail to be a form of social capital. Data for the study were from the NCES Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) 1996/1998 survey. Findings from the cross-tabulations indicated that first-generation students differed from second-generation students over a range of demographic, socioeconomic, high school, social capital, academic and social integration, and college performance factors. Findings from the sequential logistic regressions indicated that first-generation status, after controlling for all other factors in the study, had a statistically significant, but comparatively minor, negative effect on persistence. Findings indicated that whether a student had an e-mail account was a statistically significant predictor of persistence.

* Dykes, Michelle. Appalachian bridges to the baccalaureate mattering perceptions and transfer persistence of low-income, first-generation community college students.
University of Kentucky Dissertation, 2011.
Too few community college students who intend to transfer and earn a baccalaureate degree actually do. Further, low-income and first-generation college students are overrepresented at community colleges. Education is considered a means of social and economic mobility for low-income, first-generation students; therefore, retaining this population through baccalaureate attainment is a critical issue. Because of the multitude of obstacles these students must conquer, it is crucial to implement effective strategies for improving transfer rates. This dissertation has three components: (1) companion research study, (2) individual research study, and (3) reflective essay examining pretesting and telephone-administered survey methods. The companion study was conducted by a research team comprised of four members. A quantitative analysis was conducted to describe characteristics of the institutions and student population, which included 338 Spring/Summer 2009 Associate in Arts (AA) and/or Associate in Science (AS) graduates from four community colleges in Appalachia Kentucky. This study found that differences in institutional transfer rates were not explained by student characteristics. Two institutions were identified as high-impact institutions promoting transfer success, with their graduates at least two times more likely to transfer than students attending the two low-impact institutions. The individual research study addressed how mattering perceptions of low-income, first-generation students influence transfer persistence. The Mattering Scale Questionnaire for College Students (MSQCS) was administered to 80 graduates of the three community colleges in the study. There were two research questions: (1) Was mattering perception statistically significant among the three community colleges? and (2) Did mattering perception influence transfer persistence when student characteristics were controlled? Analysis of variance found no significant differences between the three community colleges on any MSQCS subscale. Logistic multiple regression found MSQCS Faculty Subscale, MSQCS Multiple Roles Subscale, and first-generation status to be predictors of transfer persistence. Community colleges can use the results to increase social and academic integration and mattering perceptions of students on their campuses. The reflective essay discussed the benefits and pitfalls of utilizing both cognitive interviewing pretesting and telephone-administered survey methods utilized in the individual research component. Implications of cognitive interviewing in higher education were discussed.

* Fann, Amy, Karen McClafferty Jarsky, and Patricia M. McDonough. Parent Involvement in the College Planning Process: A Case Study of P-20 Collaboration. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, vol. 8, issue 4 (2009), pp. 374-393. Requires Interlibrary Loan. (Peer Reviewed Journal).
Parents who have not had opportunities to attend college themselves have neither experience with the process of college preparation and college going nor sufficient access to needed information. This article describes a collaborative venture between a university department of education and a cluster of local schools designed to help parents of first-generation students become active participants in their children's college preparation and planning, shedding light on the importance of parental involvement in the college-going process.

* Fischer, Mary J., Settling into Campus Life: Differences by Race/Ethnicity in College Involvement and Outcomes, Journal of Higher Education, vol. 78, issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2007), pp. 125-161.
This article explores racial and ethnic differences in adjusting to college and the consequences different adjustment strategies have on college outcomes. The author begins by summarizing the major perspectives in education on the roots of college attrition. In the process of comparing and contrasting these perspectives, she highlights three prominent factors that may affect adjustment and subsequent success in college: minority status, socioeconomic disadvantage, and being a first generation college student. Looking at the social and academic connections students make on campus, she explores the importance of the college transition process. In the course of transitioning to college, students form various connections to others on campus. Here, the author introduces a variety of indicators of these social and academic connections and examines their relationship to college grades and satisfaction with college. She also examines Black and Hispanic students separately to understand how their adjustment to college may be different from that of White and Asian students.

* Flores, Ramon. Attributes and characteristics of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) high school program for first-generation Latino students. Pepperdine University, 2007.
This study used a web-based survey collected data from 28 first-generation Latino engineers who participated in the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) program during their high school years. From the set of 28 respondents, 5 volunteered to participate in an optional telephone interview. The purpose of this study was to describe the critical attributes and characteristics of the MESA program that lead to success at both the high school and college levels for first-generation Latino students. Success at the high school level was operationally defined as successfully graduating with a high school diploma. Success at the college level was operationally defined here as college graduation with an engineering degree. Using a mixed-methods technique, the researcher attempted to secure consensus of opinion from a sample population of 28 first-generation Latino engineers. The mixed-methods technique was chosen since it allowed the researcher to draw on the strengths of quantitative and qualitative approaches. According to the findings, the typical respondent felt that mentoring was the attribute of the MESA program that most prepared him to graduate from high school. The respondents felt that the following MESA attributes most helped them transition into an undergraduate engineering program: Academic and University Advising; Enrichment Activities; Career Advising; Field Trips; Mentoring; Scholarship Incentive Awards; and Speakers. The respondents viewed study groups as the MESA attribute that best prepared them to graduate college with an engineering degree. This study was purposefully designed as a descriptive study. Future research is required to extend this work into an evaluative study. This would allow for the generalization of the critical attributes to the general student population serviced by the MESA program.

* Fujii, Allison M. The Ones Who Hold the World: Career Choice Process of Asian American First-generation College Students. Thesis, Counseling Option in Student Development in Higher Education, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.
Asian American first-generation college students—those who are the first in their families to attend college—comprise a growing yet understudied population within U.S. higher education. This qualitative study explored the career choice process of eleven Asian American first-generation college students who were majoring in arts, humanities, and social science fields. The findings suggest that students' cultural and class identities influenced the way they and their families approached the career choice process. Students often experienced family challenges in pursuing culturally nontypical majors. Participants' stories underscored the importance of culturally relevant support, and receiving such support on campus was instrumental to students' self-efficacy. Contrary to what the model minority myth purports, Asian American first-generation students are complex individuals with unique struggles and motivation in attaining higher education.

* Gallegos, Loretta E. Latinas: Life histories and the factors that influence success. Colorado State University, 2006, 319 pages.
This ethnographic study identifies the factors and actions that influence the success of Latinas born and raised in the United States and living in the Rocky Mountain Region. In the context of this study, Latina is a nomenclature used interchangeably with Chicana, Hispanic, and Mexican-American. The participants have achieved advanced degrees and are in positions of leadership. They are first generation college graduates who come from working class families. An emancipatory paradigm, a parallel concept to qualitative design, is the overall approach to this study which addresses social oppression at any level of occurrence. Participants' experiences are relayed through narrative life histories and further displayed using within-case analysis and cross-case analysis to present the research findings and themes. The foremost themes that emerged from this study were identified as career, family, economic, and educational systems, ethnic identity, and resiliency. Within each of these major themes are numerous support themes that collectively illustrate the factors that contribute or hinder the advancement of Latinas. The support themes within the concept of career are leadership style, barriers to career, career mentors, and entrepreneurship. The support themes within the concept of the family system are the family unit, traditions, work ethic, and family resiliency. The support themes within the concept of the economic system are the issues surrounding poverty and class division. The educational system illustrated multiple support themes within parental influence, the educational environment in the elementary, secondary, and college experiences, barriers to education, and mentors in education. The support themes within the concept of ethnic identity presented issues in childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and defining community. The support themes within the concept of resiliency produced information on significant life events, personality traits, and personal work ethic. The findings suggest evidence that strong family support and positive ethnic identity are among the key factors that attributes to the success of Latinas.

* Garcia, Mario T. The Latino Generation: Voices of the New America. University of North Carolina Press, 2014.
Presents 13 oral histories of young, first-generation college students.

* Gardea, Jessica, et al, From Folklore to Molecular Pharmacophores: Cultivating STEM Students among Young, First-Generation Female Mexican-Americans, Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 88, issue 1 (Jan. 2011), pp. 41–43.
The Research and Engineering Apprenticeship Program of the Academy of Applied Science has funded several high school student summer internships to work within the Department of Chemistry at the University of Texas at El Paso. Over the last nine years, young Mexican-American scholars have been recruited into STEM-specific (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) laboratories to cultivate and nurture their interest in research. This commentary describes vignettes from a successful program in which coauthoring students are paired with a graduate student to advance a molecular-level understanding of biomedical intervention by traditional phytoremedials (plant-based remedies) in neurodegenerative disease processes. Considering that the selected phytoremedials originate from Mexico, Latin America, and the Indian subcontinent and are familiar folklore (kitchen theraceuticals) to the participating Hispanic and Indian scholars, the research project provides an enhanced sense of importance, ownership, and enthusiasm. Eventually, it cements the bridge to a future STEM-related college education, engages in the nation’s STEM capacity-building mission, and contributes to the nation’s Hispanic science and technology workforce of tomorrow.

* Gasbarra, Paul and Jean Johnson. Out before the Game Begins: Hispanic Leaders Talk about What's Needed to Bring More Hispanic Youngsters into Science, Technology and Math Professions. Public Agenda, America's Competitiveness: Hispanic Participation in Technology Careers Summit (Palisades, NY, May 5-6, 2008).
Hispanics are one of the largest and fastest-growing minority groups in the United States. Projections indicate a need for an increase of 20% of practicing engineers by 2010. Despite the growing number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) careers in the American economy, education statistics suggest that too few Hispanic students are being encouraged and equipped to take advantage of opportunities in technical disciplines. American business and industry and the nation's Hispanic communities would both benefit from addressing this mismatch. In summer 2007, the IBM International Foundation asked Public Agenda to interview Hispanic and Latino leaders in a variety of fields, asking for their views on what will be needed to bring more Hispanic students into the technical and scientific disciplines. This report is based on 19 30-minute telephone interviews conducted in the summer and fall of 2007. Public Agenda spoke with Hispanic scientists and inventors, officers at technology corporations, leaders from prominent non-profit and corporate entities, as well as government and educational institutions. Each interviewee had a strong interest in Hispanic and Latino affairs and was able to speak on the challenges of improving math and science education for Hispanic students. Primary observations included: (1) Socio-economic conditions of many Hispanics. Most saw poverty and poor schools as a primary, first-order-of-business barrier; (2) Schools in poorer urban areas with a high concentration of Hispanics tend to have a lower quality of education, poor bilingual education programs, high dropout rates and inadequate curricula; (3) Potential jeopardies to learning such as illegal immigration that may undercut a child's ability to learn, even when they do have access to better schools with better teachers and courses; (4) Barriers caused by need to master academics in a non-native language, and an associated high drop-out rate; (5) Specific failures in the way math and science are taught, on top of the over-arching educational failures; (6) Need for more Hispanic role models in the STEM fields; (7) Traditional gender roles continue to discourage young Hispanic women from pursuing careers of their own, particularly in STEM fields; (8) Limited parental educational attainment and traditional conceptions of the school's role in childhood development can have a variety of effects on the success of education; (9) Obstacles to college caused by poor preparation and/or lack of financial resources; and (10) Need for strong mentorship, faculty support and study groups to mitigate pressures on first-generation college students. All of the scientists and business people, government officials, community organizers and advocates voiced enthusiasm for the goal of bringing many more Hispanic and Latino youngsters into the scientific and technical disciplines. But many also pointed to a long road ahead. A list of interviewees is included.

* Gibbons, Melinda M. and L. DiAnne Borders. Prospective First-Generation College Students: A Social-Cognitive Perspective, Career Development Quarterly, vol. 58, issue 3 (Mar 2010), pp. 194-208.
The authors investigated differences in college-going expectations of middle school students who would be the 1st in their families to attend college. Social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) was used to examine college-related expectations in 272 seventh-grade students. Differences were found between prospective 1st-generation college students (PFGCSs) and their non-PFGCS peers, with the former group demonstrating lower self-efficacy, higher negative outcome expectations, and more perceived barriers. Path analysis demonstrated partial support for the SCCT model. An alternative model for PFGCSs is proposed. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

* Gloria, Alberta M. and Jeanett Castellanos. "Desafios y Bendiciones": A Multiperspective Examination of the Educational Experiences and Coping Responses of First-Generation College Latina Students, Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, vol. 11,  issue 1 (Jan 2012), pp. 82-99. Requires Interlibrary Loan.
Taking a multiperspective approach, seven Latina students, two student services personnel, and one mental health service provider are interviewed to gain different stakeholder perspectives regarding Latina first-generation college educational and coping experiences. Familial involvement and connections with family, peers, and university personnel are critical to the educational coping of Latina first-generation college students. The students provide "consejos" for other Latina first-generation students to navigate college successfully. Practice implications and directives for future research are provided.

* Hamrick, Florence A. and Frances K. Stage. Community Activities, Educational Mentors, and College Predisposition Decisions of White, African American, and Hispanic Eighth Graders, 2000. 30 pp.
This study tested a causal model of student college predisposition that incorporated traditional measures of influences (parents' education, income, gender, parents' expectations, grades, school activities), as well as two additional influences (first-generation status and mentoring) identified in qualitative studies of pre-college through early college experiences of minority and low-income students. Specifically, the models examined the impact on explained variance in eighth-grade students' college predisposition decisions and sought to identify patterns among the selected variables for sub-groups of students. Data for the model was drawn from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1988; the sample consisted of 300 students randomly drawn from unweighted groups of White, Hispanic, and African American students. This study reinforced the contributions of mentoring and community involvement for all sub-groups of students and also highlighted the generally indirect nature of their influences on eighth-grade predisposition. For African American students, the circuitous route of effects ran from community involvement and educational mentoring to grades, to parental expectations, and lastly to predisposition. The study also reinforced the central role of parental expectations on students' early decisions regarding college.

* Hand, Christie and Emily Miller Payne. First-Generation College Students: A Study of Appalachian Student Success. Journal of Developmental Education, Vol. 32, issue 1 (Fall 2008), pp. 4-15.
First-generation students represent a crucial population in institutions of higher education. Often considered "at-risk" in academic persistence and retention discussions, these students present both a challenge and opportunity to postsecondary education. This study focuses on a subgroup of first-generation students, those from Appalachia, and the factors contributing to their academic persistence. The participants were students from the Student Support Services program at a major Appalachian university. The phenomenological method was employed, enabling the themes to flow from the data rather than being presupposed by the researcher. The themes (factors) emerging from the students' experiences were the importance of home culture and family, financial concerns, significance of an internal locus of control, relationships and emotional support, and communication of information. Each of these has shown a definite impact on the students' academic persistence.

* Harrell, Pamela Esprívalo and William Scott Forney. Ready or Not, Here We Come: Retaining Hispanic and First-Generation Students in Postsecondary Education, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, vol. 27, issue 2 (February 2003), pp. 147-56. Available in the Education Library
A review of research into the enrollment and retention of Hispanic students in higher education is provided. This review covers research into the high school academic preparation of Hispanic students, performance of Hispanic students on college entrance examinations, and family demographics that predict the retention and persistence of Hispanic students in higher education. It reveals significant career preparation changes that must be implemented if Hispanic students are to participate fully and equally in U.S. society. The review highlights the need for public schools to provide the resources to enable Hispanic students to compete with majority students and the need for enrollment of Hispanic students in more rigorous high school curricula. Furthermore, the review indicates that models and mentors are needed to help Hispanic students to navigate the college system.

* Hendrix, Ellen Hudgins, Ph.D. "A long row to hoe": Life and learning for first-generation college students in the 21st century rural South. Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2009, 211 pp.
This study examines the lives of first-generation college students from rural, working-class families in Southeast Georgia. Through their stories, readers understand first-generation students' passage into higher education, both how they have prepared and the challenges they face once they enroll. Research questions focus on the role learning plays in students' lives; the impact attending college has on their professions or jobs; the advantages and/or disadvantages of attending college; and how teachers might help more first-generation students succeed. Part of the literature reviews the history of southern culture, including mores and traditions, especially as they relate to education. The study itself is qualitative, a combination of interviews and field observations. To show how changes in the South over the past thirty years have impacted first-generation students, the participants range in age from 22 to 54. Analysis of the interviews and participant observations reveal three key findings about first-generation students' experiences: First, attitudes toward education have changed significantly in recent years. Education has grown from something that people from rural communities did to something that they value, so today more first-generation students are encouraged to work hard and do well in school so that they can go to college. Second, once first-generation students enter college, they face unique challenges even though they are academically prepared. Learning how to navigate within the higher education system is critical to their success. Third, even though parents act as sponsors before students enter the university, they often contribute to students' uncertainty when students begin to question cultural beliefs and values. For many first-generation students, education is a means of moving out of the working class. In the process, however, first-generation students often find themselves in limbo between what they have always known and what they believe they can become. The study's participants are still in transition, pursuing educations that may help them in their quest for middle class and all that the class may signify. Although none have graduated, they continue to make progress or plan to return. Understanding their lives and their needs will help those who teach first-generation students from working-class families help them succeed.

* Hicks, Terence, Abul Pitre and Gregory J. Vincent. Research Studies in Higher Education: Educating Multicultural College Students. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 2012. Requires Interlibrary Loan.
Includes African American and Latino first-generation students: implications for teachers, school counselors, university officials, parents, and students / Desiree Vega and James L. Moore -- Inspired to be first: how African American first generation students are predisposed to pursue higher education  / Ron Brown -- Engagement practices and study abroad participation of first-generation American college students / Bryan Andriano -- "I thought I was so dumb ...": low-income first generation college students, inequities in academic preparation and reference group theory / Ashley Rondini -- Examining involvement as a critical factor: perceptions from first-generation and non-firstgeneration students.

* Horwedel, Dina M., Putting First-Generation Students First, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, vol. 25, issue 5 (Apr 2008), p10-12.
As the demographics of the United States change, it is only natural that enrollment in the nation's colleges and universities mirrors these shifts. One well-reported trend is the growing Hispanic population, which is resulting in a greater number of first-generation college students. Institutions of higher education across the country are creating and revamping programs to serve these students in efforts to increase their chances of obtaining a degree. This article reports on how colleges are undertaking unique initiatives to recruit and retain first-generation students.

* Ishiyama, John. Expectations and Perceptions of Undergraduate Research Mentoring: Comparing First Generation, Low Income White/Caucasian and African American Students, College Student Journal, vol. 41, issue 3 (Sep 2007), pp. 540-549.
This study examines how student scholars from first generation college and low income (FGLI) backgrounds and/or African American students perceive a research mentoring relationship. Using data compiled from oral interviews of thirty-three participants in the Ronald E. McNair Post Baccalaureate Achievement Program at Truman State University, this study has two purposes. First, in contrast to most of the literature that examines the mentoring relationship in collaborative undergraduate research, this study explicitly examines the perceptions of mentoring and research held by first generation college students and African American students at a primarily white/Caucasian institution. Second, the lessons learned from this inquiry may serve to better guide research programs in the process of mentor-student pairing that specifically target first generation college and other students from groups underrepresented in higher education. Results indicate that African American students participating in the McNair program, both FGLI and continuing generation, are much more likely than White FGLI students to emphasize the personal consideration role of mentors, psychological benefits from the research experience, and to describe a good mentor as someone who is personally supportive.

* Jehangir, Rashne, Cultivating Voice: First-Generation Students Seek Full Academic Citizenship in Multicultural Learning Communities Innovative Higher Education, vol. 34, issue 1 (Apr 2009) pp. 33-49.
Research has shown that first-generation, low-income college students experience both isolation and marginalization, especially during their first-year of college, which impacts their long-term persistence in higher education. In this article, I argue that learning community pedagogy designed with attention to multicultural curricula is one vehicle to address the challenges faced by these college students. Organized around the themes of identity, community, and agency, an interdisciplinary Multicultural Learning Voices Community (MLVC) was created at a large, public midwestern research university to provide TRiO students with challenging academic coursework that would connect with their lived experience and help them build bridges of social and academic integration during their critical first-year of college. This article presents qualitative data from a multiple case study of seven cohorts of the MLVC, which captures students' perceptions of their experience.

* Jehangir, Rashne Rustom. Higher Education and First-Generation Students: Cultivating Community, Voice, and Place for the New Majority. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. In the Education Library: LC4069.6 .J44 2010.

* Jehangir, Rashne. Stories as Knowledge: Bringing the Lived Experience of First Generation College Students Into the AcademyUrban Education, vol. 45, issue 4 (July 2010), pp. 533-553. 
This longitudinal study of first-generation, low-income students examines the impact of their participation in a multicultural learning community (MLC) designed to challenge the isolation and marginalization they experience at a large, predominantly White research university. The MLC employed multicultural curriculum and critical pedagogy to bring students' lived experience and narrative to the center of their learning experience. Qualitative data in the form of reflective writings and retrospective interviews showcase how first-generation students are validated as knowers and can cultivate a sense of belonging at the academy when their cultural wealth is incorporated into the classroom space.

* Jehangir, Rashne, Rhiannon Williams and Judith Jeske. The Influence of Multicultural Learning Communities on the Intrapersonal Development of First-Generation, Journal of College Student Development, vol. 53, issue 2 (Mar-Apr 2012), pp. 267-284.
This longitudinal study of first-generation, low-income students considers the impact of their participation in a multicultural learning community designed to combat the isolation and marginalization they experience at a large Midwestern research university. The study explores the extent to which multicultural curriculum and critical pedagogy create avenues for intrapersonal self-authorship for historically marginalized students in a TRiO program. Findings indicate that intentionally drawing students' lived experiences into the learning process and scaffolding opportunities to reflect on one's multiple identities positively impacts development of the intrapersonal dimension of self-authorship.

Social / Cultural / Racial Issues (K-R)    [Jump to S-Z]

* Kane, Michael A., Chuck Beals, Edward J. Valeau, and M. J. Johnson, Fostering Success among Traditionally Underrepresented Student Groups: Hartnell College's Approach to Implementation of the Math, Engineering, and Science Achievement (Mesa) ProgramCommunity College Journal of Research and Practice, vol. 28, issue 1 (Jan 2004), pp. 17-26. Available in the Education Library.
Hartnell College's Latino students face serious obstacles to postsecondary success, and far too few Latinos enroll and succeed in mathematics, science, and technology fields. Through Hartnell's MESA program, enrollment in many math and science courses have increased. More significantly, data suggests that students participating in MESA Academic Excellence Workshops have averaged a full grade increase as compared to similar students not participating in the workshops. Hartnell College's MESA program is on a static budget, and the college has expanded and leveraged program services by linking it to several on- and off-campus outreach and student support services programs.

* Kazen, Hayley Deann. Hispanic students' perceptions of the effectiveness of learning communities: A case study of first-year university students. Texas A&M University, 2008, 167 pages.
This study focused on the perceptions students have about the effectiveness of learning communities, a focus of the First-Year Success initiative at Texas A&M International University. Because many of our students are Hispanic and/or first generation college students, the traditional lecture based college classrooms may not be effective. This study employed a case-study focusing on one section of a Freshman Seminar class that was part of a learning community. Data was gathered using interviews and journals. Students perceived learning communities to be helpful because it enabled them to make friends more easily and feel more connected to the University, two things that have been shown to increase retention. Students also believed that the Freshman Seminar class taught them valuable skills that enabled them to be more successful in college. However, students did not perceive that an integrated curriculum nor the peer mentoring program as particularly useful. In order to improve the First-Year Success program, these issues must be addressed.

* Kelly, Andrew P., Mark Schneider and Kevin Carey. Rising to the Challenge: Hispanic College Graduation Rates as a National Priority. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 2010.
President Barack Obama has called for the United States to reclaim its position as the nation with the highest concentration of adults with postsecondary degrees in the world. Given the changing demographics of the United States, this target cannot be achieved without increasing the rate at which Hispanic students obtain a college degree. In this report, the authors explore the dimensions of this challenge and identify steps that can be taken to help meet this ambitious national goal. They explore why some colleges are more successful than others in helping Hispanic students with similar academic backgrounds earn degrees, and they identify some obstacles Hispanic students face in completing a bachelor's degree. Finally, they note specific conditions that seem to affect graduation rates and discuss actions that can be taken to improve them. Complete listing of colleges and universities alphabetically by state is appended.

* Kim, Young K. and Linda J.  Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation StatusResearch in Higher Education, vol. 50, issue 5 (Aug. 2009), pp. 437-459.
This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status. The study utilized data on 58,281 students who participated in the 2006 University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES). The findings reveal differences in the frequency of student-faculty interaction across student gender, race, social class and first-generation status, and differences in the "effects" of student-faculty interaction (i.e., conditional effects) that depended on each of these factors except first-generation status. The findings provide implications for educational practice on how to maximize the educational efficacy of student-faculty interaction by minimizing the gender, race, social class, and first-generation differences associated with it.

* Laden, Berta Vigil, Socializing and mentoring college students of color: the Puente Project as an exemplary celebratory socialization model, Peabody Journal of Education, vol. 74, issue 2 (1999), pp. 55-74.
Part of a special issue on the mentoring of underrepresented students in higher education. The writer examines the Puente Project, which is a good example of the celebratory socialization model. Established in 1981, the Puente Project is an initiative of the California community college that addresses the needs of first-generation Latino college students from a cultural context. It aims to build a bridge between the cultural context of the student and the academic environment of the Puente Program and the larger organization as a whole. The project endeavors to reform education with an integrative, innovative program of culturally relevant curriculum; community involvement in committed, culturally sensitive mentoring; and focused academic counseling. The writer discusses mentoring in the Puente Project, the longevity and success of the program, and the implications of the model for policy and practice.

* Le, Huong Thi. Identity and Social Networks Among First Generation College Students. Thesis. Texas A&M University, 2010.
This thesis focuses on first generation college students and their unique social positions in social and institutional networks. First generation students are less likely to attend college than non-first generation students. I examine what factors make a student more likely to self-report student success by considering formation of a new identity,  “college student,” as well as looking at networks and role behaviors consistent with the new identity. It was predicted that those that were consistent with behaviors and identity would self-report academic success at a higher rate. I also predicted that overall, first generation students would be at a disadvantage compared to non-first generation students. Survey data collected from a large university in the southwest was utilized for analysis. First generation students are less likely to report academic success compared to their non-first generation peers. However, when more variables are considered within a binomial regression analysis, first generation status is no longer a significant influence on success. Other factors such as hours per week engaged in homework, involvement in learning communities, and ethnicity had an effect on self-reported success. Those who spent more hours per week doing homework or were involved in learning communities were more likely to self-report academic success. Whites were also more likely to report
 academic success than non-whites. Several policy implications are discussed.

* Levine, Arthur and Jana Nidiffer, Beating the Odds: How the Poor Get to College. The Jossey Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. First Edition. 1996. Requires Interlibrary Loan.
Part 1 focuses on the odds against a poor person attending college, looking at the reality of growing up poor in the United States and the odds against escaping such poverty. Part 2 examines how poor people beat such odds, presenting a study of 24 poor, first-generation college students that seeks to identify the factors that enabled these individuals to attend college.

* Lindsey, DeLois C. and Robert K. Gable, College-Ready Urban Black, Hispanic, and Biracial Students: Why Are they not Applying to College? Higher Education, Paper 16, 2013.
The research questions explored how environmental factors positively or negatively influenced college aspirations, knowledge of college admissions and financial aid processes, and other enrollment challenges. Results were analyzed with frequencies, percents, means, and standard deviations to describe levels of college knowledge, parental involvement of college processes, perceptions of college preparedness, participation in readiness activities, and counselor access.

* Lundberg, Carol A., Laurie A. Schreiner, Kristin Hovaguimian, and Sharyn Slavin Miller. First-Generation Status and Student Race/Ethnicity as Distinct Predictors of Student Involvement and Learning. NASPA Journal, vol. 44, issue 1 (2007), pp. 57-83. Requires Interlibrary Loan.
Using a national sample, student race/ethnicity was disaggregated into seven distinct groups (n = 643 per group) to identify unique effects of student race/ethnicity and first-generation on involvement and learning. First-generation status had a positive effect on student learning, but a negative effect on involvement. Effects by student race/ethnicity were mixed, revealing some dynamics similar to those for first-generation students and some that were unique to student race/ethnicity. Findings suggest specific programming implications based on student race/ethnicity and first-generation status. (Contains 5 tables and 1 figure.)

* Malmberg, Erik Davin. Factors affecting success of first-year Hispanic students enrolled in a public law school. The University of Texas at Austin, 2008, 389 pages.
The purpose of this study was to determine which variables from commonly accepted foundational theories on higher education retention, attrition, and student development are applicable to the first-year experiences of Hispanic students enrolled in a Juris Doctorate Program at an accredited law school at a public institution who are the first in their family to attend. Using both a survey instrument and narrative interviews, the study revealed that first-generation Hispanic students are disadvantaged compared to their peers when it came to understanding important law school financial, cultural, and academic issues. While family support, faculty relationships, law school study/support groups, academic mentoring, and academic advising positively influenced first-year progress; the respondents' cultural identity and race negatively impacted faculty and peer interactions both in and out of the classroom.

* Martin, Irene Rodriguez. Insights into the complexities of identity in persisting Latina college students. University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2010, 160 pages.
This study explored the educational journeys of 17 academically achieving, low income and first generation college attending Latinas at three different selective institutions. While many studies have been dedicated to the reasons for the low graduation rates of Hispanics, this strength-based study focused on resiliency and on the relationships and strategies Latinas used to achieve success in the most unlikely of environments. The interviews considered: the ways in which Latina students persist and whether their pathways were consistent with Tinto's traditional model of persistence; how students developed the scholastic capital required for persistence; and the ways in which culture and campus affected their persistence. The central themes fell into two broad categories: family and capital. Cultural context was found to be an essential component for academic success for these students, and family involvement was central to this context. Families wanted their daughters to become not just well-educated, but bien educadas , a term that includes formal education as well as cultural norms, values, and protocols. The study also revealed that the educational pathways of these women had been made possible thanks to teachers, friends or programs that helped expand the family's social capital. However, the expansion of a student's capital and her growing development of scholastic capital were experienced as hollow unless she was able to integrate these experiences into her cultural world in a meaningful way. Family, teachers, mentors, and micro communities all played an essential role in the integration of this capital and in helping students develop bi-cultural identities. Finally, the findings suggested that there may be some advantages for Latina students who attend a women's college or are at least a strong women's studies program. Because the Hispanic culture tends to be male dominated and perhaps because in the U.S. Hispanic populations tend toward higher rates of domestic violence, sexual assault, teen pregnancy, etc. all associated with poverty and lack of education, the students in this study gravitated toward education about women's issues, women's health, birth control, and women's rights. The findings from this study offer guidance for ways institutions of higher education might betters support Hispanic persistence.

* Martinez, Aja Y. "The American Way": Resisting the Empire of Force and Color-Blind Racism, College English, vol. 71, issue 6 (Jul 2009), pp. 584-595.
Students of color (in particular, those who are first-generation Chicano/a as well as first-generation college students), form a discourse community with a tendency to rely on dominant color-blind ideology concerning freedom of choice and equal opportunity to explain their positions within the academy. In this article, the author analyzes the rhetoric of this discourse community by identifying the color-blind and "dead speech" that these students use to make sense of the structural racism they have experienced in life and continue to experience in college. The author would like to come to a better understanding of why this group of students subscribes to a dominant ideology that seeks to suppress them. Through use of anonymous student writing samples, the author illustrates the kind of individual who internalizes these views, and she analyzes why such an individual uses a color-blind ideology to explain his or her views concerning racism and academic achievement. The author plans eventually to apply what she learns from this project toward a better understanding of the struggles, based on circumstance, that her students face when assimilation into mainstream culture is viewed as their only option toward academic and, above all, American success. Through the structural racism prevalent in the university tradition, these actions of assimilation are (implicitly or explicitly) encouraged, and, as part of her greater work, the author seeks to both disrespect and resist this empire of force. The author believes a step toward this resistance involves educating students about dominant color-blind racist ideology and encouraging them to imagine and express themselves outside of the rhetoric in which the ideology manifests.

* Mendez, Julian J. From Migrant Farmworkers to First-Generation Latina/o Students: Factors Predicting College Outcomes in Students Participating in the College Assistance Migrant Program. Dissertation. Dept. of Educational Psychology. University of Arizona, 2014.

* Mendoza, Margaret Anne Jendro. Enabling pedagogy: Mentoring undergraduate researchers writing in the remodeled margin. New Mexico State University, 2005, 163 pages.
This dissertation examines coordination of power, knowledge, and discourse in education, focusing on how historically underserved but successful college students learn to use the power of their intellect and the power of the discourse of their discipline through interaction with faculty mentors during apprenticeships in knowledge making. Participants were low-income and first-generation or underrepresented juniors, seniors, and a graduate student designated as McNair Scholars and their faculty mentors engaged in research. The purpose of the study was to see how the process of academic mentoring influenced acquisition of the discourse of the disciplines. Data for four case studies were gathered through observation and audio taping of student/mentor meetings and semistructured interviews. Units of analysis were determined and "markers" of each utterance's position ("inside" or "outside") were defined. A database was designed for preliminary analysis of the coded transcripts. Each unit of analysis was also analyzed for the action in the talk. Actions were entered in the database and were explored as emergent themes. The qualitative phase of the analysis included extensive case journaling, thematic freewriting, and discourse analysis. Statistical analysis suggests two categories of mentoring actions: supplemental and enabling. Supplemental actions are monologic and are often used in classrooms; enabling actions are dialogic, requiring the give and take of conversation. Those used most frequently were translation, elicitation of information, and validation. Student action categories were participatory actions (classroom activities such as reading, taking notes, or composing text) and engaged/enabled actions (which took place through being a partner in a dialogue). Qualitative analysis suggests that, beneath the surface work of teaching and learning to conduct research in a discipline, mentors were teaching and students were learning a new coordination of power, knowledge, and discourse. That reorganization seems to begin with an authorizing act---being mentored---and progresses as students learn to act in authorized ways, to interrogate everything and to be explicit as they gain validation. This dissertation, written in a narrative style, is a hybrid form of research writing addressing issues of learning to teach and to write in a remodeled margin while contributing to the work of remodeling.

* Moore, John S. Self-regulated Learning and Ethnic/Racial Variables: Predicting Minority First-generation College Students' Persistence. Dissertation. School of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, 2013.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how self-regulated learning and ethnic/racial variables predict minority first-generation college student persistence and related constructs. Participants were drawn nationally from the U.S. Department of Education funded TRiO Student Support Services Programs. Additional participants from the Talent Development program and General Psychology classes from the University of Rhode Island were also included if they were first-generation college students. Preliminary analyses of group differences based on minority status revealed few significant differences in selfregulated learning, ethnic/racial, and college persistence variables. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that academic self-efficacy, program use, and race rejection sensitivity were the strongest predictors of minority first-generation college students’ persistence.

* Morales, Erik E. Legitimizing Hope: An Exploration of Effective Mentoring for Dominican American Male College Students. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, vol. 11, issue 3 (2009-2010), pp. 385-406.
The purpose of this study was to explore the informal mentoring relationships of 15 male, Hispanic (Dominican American), first-generation college students, to determine how their mentoring experiences influenced their academic progress, standing, and retention. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 undergraduates from a comprehensive, public urban university. The mentors proved to be valuable social capital for these statistically at-risk students by providing them with insider academic information, legitimizing their academic and professional goals, and transforming their immigration experiences into academic inspiration. Suggestions for effective mentoring for immigrant/ethnic minority college students are presented.

* Moschetti, Roxanne and Cynthia Hudley, Measuring Social Capital among First-Generation and Non-First-Generation, Working-Class, White Males, Journal of College Admission, issue 198 (Win 2008), pp. 25-30.
Social capital is a useful theory for understanding the experiences of working class, first-generation college students. Social capital is the value of a relationship that provides support and assistance in a given social situation. According to social capital theory, networks of relationships can aid students in managing an otherwise unfamiliar environment (Attinasi, 1989) by providing students with valuable information, guidance and emotional support (Stanton-Salazar, 1997). This study examined the effects of socioeconomic and first-generation status on social capital among working-class, white, male students. The authors measured social capital by assessing the number and the quality of students' ties to institutional agents. Institutional agents are defined as individuals who have the ability to transmit or negotiate the transmission of opportunities and resources available at the institution (e.g. mentoring, counseling, tutoring). The authors included two types of students: (a) working-class males who are first-generation college students (e.g. Terenzini, Springer, Yaeger, Pascarella & Nora, 1996; Pascarella et al., 2004) and (b) working-class students whose parents attended college. This study expected first-generation status to be associated with working class, white males having less communication with institutional agents about their college experiences. Although not supported at a level of statistical significance, the data showed a trend supporting the hypothesis.

* Museus, Samuel D., "An introductory mixed-methods intersectionality analysis of college access and equity: An examination of first-generation Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders," New Directions for Institutional Research, no. 151 (Fall 2011), pp. 63-75. Also available in in Using mixed-methods approaches to study intersectionality in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011.
In this article, the author discusses how researchers can use mixed-methods approaches and intersectional analyses to understand college access among first-generation Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). First, he discusses the utility of mixed-methods approaches and intersectionality research in studying college access. Then, he discusses an introductory mixed-methods intersectional analysis of inequities in college access faced by first-generation AAPIs. He uses the term "introductory mixed-methods" because he presents the findings of a descriptive quantitative analysis and the initial themes that emerged from the analysis of qualitative interviews, recognizing that more complex quantitative and qualitative analyses could be conducted to extend this examination. Finally, he concludes with a set of recommendations for post-secondary education scholars and institutional researchers who consider using mixed methods and intersectionality in future research.

* Napoles, Gerald F., Ph.D. Factors associated with engagement levels among entering and returning Hispanic college students. University of Texas at Austin, 2009, 161 pp.
The purpose of this study was to explore the engagement levels among entering and returning Hispanic community college students. This study provides needed data focused specifically on Hispanic student engagement. Limited data exist on the persistence of community college students in general, and Hispanic students in particular. The data were collected using the Survey of Entering Student Engagement (SENSE). SENSE was administered as a pilot test to students at volunteer community colleges during the fourth and fifth weeks of the fall 2007 semester. These 22 colleges are located in eight states. This study consisted of two research questions: Are there significant differences in the engagement levels of entering and returning Hispanic community college students? Are there significant differences in engagement levels of entering Hispanic students when analyzed in terms of the following breakout variables: enrollment status (full-time and part-time); age (traditional and nontraditional; 18-19 years old and 20 years old and older); first-generation and non-first-generation status; developmental education status (enrollment in developmental writing course; developmental reading course; developmental math course); sex (male and female); academic goal aspiration (degree seeking and non-degree seeking). The results show that when there are significant differences in levels of engagement between entering and returning Hispanic students, returning students are consistently more engaged. This study also identifies the importance of collaborative learning in Hispanic student engagement. Full-time students reported higher engagement levels than part-time students. Nontraditional age students reported higher engagement levels than traditional age students. Students 20 years and older reported higher engagement levels than students 18-19 years old. First-generation students reported higher engagement levels than non-first-generation. Students enrolled in developmental reading reported higher engagement levels than students not enrolled in developmental reading. Students enrolled in developmental writing reported higher engagement levels than students not enrolled in developmental writing. Students enrolled in developmental math reported higher engagement levels than students not enrolled in developmental math in regards to use of skill labs. Females were more likely to report that they would prepare at least one draft of an assignment before turning it in. Degree-seeking students reported higher engagement levels than non-degree seeking students.

* Nuñez, Anne-Marie. Counterspaces and Connections in College Transitions: First-Generation Latino Students' Perspectives on Chicano Studies, Journal of College Student Development, vol. 52, issue 6 (November 2011), pp. 639-655.
Abstract: This study explored how first-generation Latino sophomores in a public research university describe the influence of Chicano Studies classes on their college transition experiences. Students reported that taking Chicano Studies offered them opportunities to handle feelings of isolation, build awareness of community heritage, develop more meaningful student-faculty relationships, and understand perspectives of people from different backgrounds. These processes enhanced their capacity to manage key developmental issues during their college transitions, including handling racism and forming a sense of community on campus. This study offers insights about how practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can address these students' experiences with campus diversity.

* Ortega, Jessica Rae. Academic persistence of Latinas in higher education: The supportive role of the mother-daughter relationship. Arizona State University, 2006, 126 pages
Research studies have demonstrated the importance of social support for Latinas' persistence in college however researchers have provided minimal focus on the role of maternal support on Latinas' academic persistence in college. The present study investigated Latinas' perceived maternal support and its relationship to their persistence decisions made in college. The sample consisted of 59 Latinas who were first generation in college, undergraduates, and self-identified with Hispanic, Latina, Chicana, Mexican, or Mexican-American ethnic labels. Thirty-six Latinas were affiliated with the Hispanic Mother Daughter Program, an early intervention mentoring program that prepares Latinas for college. Participation for Latinas in this program starts in the 8 th grade and requires the involvement of their mothers or maternal caregivers. The relationship between perceived maternal support and academic persistence was not statistically significant. Although the primary hypothesis was not supported, it may serve as a foundation for further examination of maternal support and its role in Latina daughters' academic persistence. An elaboration of this and other results are discussed as well as implications and recommendations for future study of this area of research.

* Owens, Delila, Krim Lacey, Glinda Rawls and JoAnne Holbert-Quince. First-Generation African American Male College Students: Implications for Career Counselors, Career Development Quarterly, vol. 58, isue 4 (Jun 2010), p291-300.
The path to upward mobility or economic success for African American men is often filled with obstacles and roadblocks. Many first-generation African American men entering colleges and universities face limited resources and opportunities to aid in their career development and efforts to meet their career objectives. This article explores the career development needs of African American men attending colleges and universities. The article provides suggestions, techniques, and strategies that career counselors and student affairs personnel can use to assist these African American men in their career development. Implications for career counselors are also addressed.

* Parks-Yancy, Rochelle. Interactions into Opportunities: Career Management for Low-Income, First-Generation African American College Students, Journal of College Student Development, vol. 53, issue 4 (Jul-Aug 2012), pp. 510-523. Available in the Education Library journal collection. Available online through the title link beginning July/August 2013.
This study explores how low-income, African American college students obtain social capital resources from university contacts to set and achieve career goals. Students knew little about career options available to future college graduates beyond jobs that were related to their current jobs. Few students utilized the information, influence, and opportunity resources of their university contacts that could increase their career ambitions because they were unaware that informal interactions with these individuals could be helpful. Thus, students had more constrained career plans than they could have had. Strategies to enhance the career expectations of this student population are proposed. (Contains 2 tables.)

* Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students. Dissertation, Argosy University. 2009. 106 pp.
This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and cultural barriers significantly impact first-generation Vietnamese students' lives and their learning process. Understanding lecture materials can be challenging, and students are often confused by different communication and learning styles. Seven selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students living in the Puget Sound area were interviewed in a phenomenological qualitative study. This study not only investigated language and cultural barriers but also suggests the types of effective training programs to help non-native college students succeed in trans-cultural settings. Seven appendices are included: (1) The Census 2000 Demographic Profile; (2) The Percentage of Foreign-Born Students; (3) The Interview Questions; (4) The Interview Protocol; (5) Consent Form (in English and Vietnamese); (6) Audio Tape Permission; and (7) Advertisement for Study. (Contains 5 tables.)

* Prange, Beverly. Empathic Empowerment: Supporting Latina/o First-Generation College-Bound Students. Dissertation. Educational Leadership, University of California, San Diego and California State University, San Marcos; 2013.
There is a significant achievement gap for Latina/o students, evidenced by low rates of high school graduation and enrollment in post-secondary education. This dissertation summarizes literature on factors that promote academic success for Latina/o student's success employing two theoretical perspectives: resiliency and social capital. Research in these areas points to the significance of supportive relationships with educators to fostering academic success for students from under-served populations. Nevertheless, many students from Latino backgrounds report a lack of caring relationships with adults at school. Empathy has been identified as a foundational element of human relationships and essential for caring and cultural sensitivity. This study defines empathy, and suggests that educator empathy is essential to creating supportive relationships between Latina/o students and teachers, administrators, and other school personnel. A mixed-method study explored the attitudes and behaviors of educators who demonstrate empathic understanding for students in order to learn what is needed to replicate and spread empathic attitudes and behaviors in the school environment. Findings from this study suggest that Latina/o first-generation college-bound students perceive supportive high school educators as empathic and non-judgmental. Analysis of student and educator descriptions of supportive relationships reveals six thematic clusters : relationship building, perspective taking, cultural empathy, high expectations, undocumented students, and organizational context. These findings suggest a conceptual model showing how educator competencies and organizational context can support or constrain empathic relationship building in schools.

* Prospero, Moises, Catherine Russell, and Shetal Vohra-Gupta. Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students, Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, vol. 11, issue 1 (Jan 2012),  pp. 100-119. Requires Interlibrary Loan.
This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation). The study found that extrinsic and amotivation were significant predictors of grade point averages (GPAs) among FGS. In addition, high school FGS and Hispanic students were more likely to report higher intrinsic motivation than college FGS and non-Hispanic students. Implications for higher education are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

* Reed, Charles B., The Future Cannot Wait, Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, vol. 39, issue 6 (Nov-Dec 2007), pp. 28-33.
When asked to identify the greatest challenge he faces as the leader of the country's largest system of higher education, the author, a chancellor of California State University, states that the challenge is the urgent need to reach students from traditionally underserved populations--to prepare them and get them into college and then to make sure they graduate. He adds that people must find ways to reach students who might not speak English as a first language, whose parents or grandparents may never have been to a college campus, and whose teachers and counselors may not have paid attention to their needs. These students are already in the majority in California, and their numbers are growing rapidly throughout the country. In an effort to help these students and their parents understand what steps they need to take to prepare for, get into, and succeed in college, the California State University is trying many different approaches to try to meet the needs before the situation becomes a crisis. In this article, the author describes the efforts of the CSU system in meeting this challenge and in reaching the underserved populations.

* Rivera, Eric M. and Reynaldo I. Monzon, Ensuring Latina/o College Student Success: A Data-Driven Approach," Metrpolitan Universities, Vol 24, issue 2 (Oct. 2013), pp. 71-90. Interlibrary Loan
Illustrates how SDSU analyzed potential factors contributing to Latina/o college student success for first time freshmen using three years of longitudinal cohort databases. A particular focus was given to first generation Latina/o college entering freshmen with basic developmental needs in writing and/or math. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictive validity of various factors on Latina/o college student success.

* Roberts, J. Scott and George C. Rosenwald. "Ever Upward and No Turning Back: Social Mobility and Identity Formation among First-Generation College Atudents," in Turns in the Road: Narrative Studies of Lives in Transition, Dan P. McAdams, Ruthellen Josselson and Amia Lieblich, eds. American Psychological Association, 2001. Young Library -- Books - 3rd Floor: BF637.L53 T87 2001

* Roberts, Tabatha L., "Negating the Inevitable: An Autoethnographic Analysis of First-Generation College Student Status" in Critical Autoethnography: Intersecting Cultural Identities in Everyday Life. Robin M. Boylorn and Mark P. Orbe, eds. Walnut Creek, CA : Left Coast Press, 2014. Young Library, 4th floor: HM753 .C745 2014.
This volume uses autoethnography--cultural analysis through personal narrative--to explore the tangled relationships between culture and communication. Using an intersectional approach to the many aspects of identity at play in everyday life, a diverse group of authors reveals the complex nature of lived experiences. They situate interpersonal experiences of gender, race, ethnicity, ability, and orientation within larger systems of power, oppression, and social privilege.

* Rosso, Ryan R. Integrating Cultural Perspectives of First Generation Latino Students and Families into the College Admissions Process. Dominican University of California, 2011. 38 pp.
First generation college-bound Latino students and their families are placed at a disadvantage in the college admissions process for a variety of reasons. Their cultural perspectives in relation to education and family combined with the increasingly widening gap between the working class and professional middle class has left many Latino families stuck in low socio-economic situations, making college affordability a less plausible goal. Thus, analyzing correlations between population, ethnicity, and college enrollment, integrating cultural perspectives into the college search process, cultivating support systems for these students, and breaking down socio-economic barriers that hinder these families from realizing there are affordable options are main focuses of my research. The purpose of this study is to develop strategies for integrating cultural perspectives of first generation college-bound Latino students and their families into the college admissions process, to examine the attitudes that exist about the college admissions process within that specific demographic, to analyze the role race and class play in the ability to achieve educational attainment, and to use these findings to cater more effectively to first-generation Latino families. Questions that will be researched include what are the most effective strategies for integrating cultural perspectives of first generation college-bound students and their families into the college admissions process to more effectively communicate and educate them on the expectations of the process? What systems of support have first-generation Latino students and their families who have already gone through the process found most helpful? This study followed a qualitative approach, action research design to give voice to the cultural perspectives of first generation college-bound Latino students and their families into the college admissions process.

Social / Cultural / Racial Issues (S - Z)

* Santiago, Deborah A. Leading in a Changing America: Presidential Perspectives from Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). Excelencia in Education. 2009.
Today, the U. S. population includes approximately 50 million Latinos, more than double the figure reported in the 1990 Census. A heterogeneous group from many countries of origin, the Latino community includes recent immigrants and families who have lived here for generations. Despite these differences, current analyses document significant common patterns in Latinos' pursuit of higher education, which result in less than 10 percent of Latinos 25 to 29 years of age earning a bachelor's degree. This report portrays the perspectives and leadership choices by a select group of college and university presidents who are on the front lines of the changing higher education landscape. These leaders offer pragmatic approaches for serving first generation college-going students in the present and visions for the future of higher education that can inform the future of public policy in higher education to serve a changing America.

* Schaefer, Jane L. Voices of Older Baby Boomer Students: Supporting Their Transitions Back into College, Educational Gerontology, vol. 36, issue 1 (2010), pp. 67-90 2010.
The success of older adult students seeking higher education degrees depends, in part, upon fulfillment of critical support needs. This phenomenological study explored the experiences of nine contemporary Older Baby Boomer students (ages 50-62) who are pursuing bachelor's degrees at a Midwestern university. Qualitative data was gathered from individual interviews and reflection questionnaires. Nancy Schlossberg's transition model provided a theoretical framework for the findings, which suggest that most of these learners (a) are first generational college students with deficient information about formal higher education process, (b) are primarily motivated by career aspirations, and (c) experience complex support needs. (Contains 3 tables.)

* Schleicher, Andreas. Where Immigrant Students Succeed: A Comparative Review of Performance and Engagement in PISA 2003. Intercultural Education, vol. 17, issue 5 (Dec 2006), pp. 507-516. Requires ILL.
This report examines how immigrant students performed, mainly in mathematics and reading, but also in science and problem-solving skills in the PISA 2003 assessment, both in comparison with native students in their adopted country and relative to other students across all countries covered in the report (the "case countries"). In addition, the report explores to what extent immigrant students reported that they have other learning prerequisites, such as motivation to learn mathematics, positive attitudes towards school and strong belief in their own abilities in mathematics (self-concept). Two groups of immigrant students are analysed: "first-generation students" who were born outside the country of assessment and whose parents were also born in a different country; and "second-generation students" who themselves were born in the country of assessment but whose parents were born in a different country, i.e. students who have followed all their schooling in the country of assessment. The analyses include 17 countries with significant immigrant student populations: the OECD countries Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the US as well as the partner countries Hong Kong-China, Macao-China and the Russian Federation. Furthermore, the report attempts to identify factors that might contribute to between-country differences in immigrant student outcomes and, as such, could provide policy-makers with information on potential intervention points to improve the situation of these students.

* Schultz, Patrick F., Upon Entering College: First Semester Experiences of First-Generation Rural Students from Agricultural Families, Rural Educator, vol. 26, issue 1 (Fall 2004), pp. 48-51.
First-generation and rural college students are considered by many retention theorists and practitioners to be an at-risk population. This study examined the details of the first semester in postsecondary education from the perspective of a group of students who met the demographic criteria of being first-generation to go to college, from rural geographical areas, and from agricultural backgrounds. It focused on the first semester experience, during its occurrence, and how six students of this specific population viewed that phenomenon. A secondary objective was to determine if the understandings that issued from the research could form a foundation from which first semester retention strategies for this particular population could be configured.

* Schustack, Amy L. Career decision-making in a socio-cultural context: Understanding vocational aspiration and choice among female first-generation college students. Harvard University, 2001, 302 pages.
First-generation students--those individuals who are the first in their family's history to pursue post-secondary education--represent an important emerging segment of the student body at our nation's colleges, a group that is entering college in ever-increasing proportions. This qualitative study examined the vocational decision-making processes of fifteen female first-generation juniors and seniors at a public college near Boston, Massachusetts. Participants from three racial groups (African-American, Latina, and white) were selected through random sampling, and data was collected via in-depth interviews, observation, and document review. Two overarching questions framed this study, which is based on prior sociological research about family structure, cultural and social identity, and career development. First, this study examined participants' perspectives about how their social networks, aspirations, and perceived needs influenced their occupational choices. Second, this study investigated the processes through which participants identified and used resources to make vocational decisions. This study revealed three categories of major findings: (1) Social networks across different contexts do play an important role in educational persistence and in the identification and development of career plans among female first-generation students. (2) Most of the patterns and processes revealed by this study did not vary by racial or ethnic group. Within each of the three racial groups, however, students' lives varied substantially, as did their attitudes, expectations, and styles of social adaptation. (3) Overall, three elements unified this diverse sample. First, all participants reported strong beliefs in the benefits of obtaining a college education. Second, a majority of participants maintained strong interpersonal connections while preserving their self-reliance and autonomy. Finally, students were adept at cultivating social and information resources to support their educational and vocational goals.

* Sinacore, Ada L. and Sasha Lerner. The Cultural and Educational Transitioning of First Generation Immigrant Undergraduate Students in Quebec, Canada, International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, vol. 13, issue 1 (Mar 2013), pp. 67-85.
The diversity of Canadian society and the significance of education for occupational mobility have prompted investigations into immigrant's educational attainment, yet little research examines immigrant post-secondary students. This phenomenological study illuminates the institutional, societal, educational, and psychosocial barriers facing immigrant undergraduates in Quebec, and examines their mentoring and career counselling needs. Recommendations for career counselling and university programming are discussed.

* Singer, Jessica. A retrospective interview study of literacy sponsorship and first generation Latino college writers. University of California, Santa Barbara, 2007, 298 pages.
This dissertation is a retrospective interview study of eight Latino college students and the factors that led them to be judged by their college professors as outstanding writers. The participants have made it past various social and academic barriers to attend and succeed in a prestigious four-year university. All of the students come from low-income families in high poverty communities, and spoke no English at the time of entrance in school. Their parents had little or no formal education. There is great educational and societal need to understand the kinds of experiences that these traditionally under-served students encounter in K-College that enhance and sustain their literacy growth and contribute to their notable academic success. This research will contribute to the diversity of literacy studies by providing concrete examples of what sponsors and mentors in and out of school do to assist Latino students in learning to write. Findings from this dissertation may have significant implications for writing instruction and interventions for Latino students and other under-served groups of students in K-College classrooms.

* Smith, Buffy, Leave No College Student Behind, Multicultural Education, vol. 11, issue 3 (Spr 2004) pp. 48-49.
In this article, the author talks about the disproportionate gap in the graduation rates in colleges and universities, which highlights the need for the higher education community to rethink strategies for improving the retention of students of color. To increase the graduation rates of students of color, the author suggests addressing the issue of the hidden curriculum, the unwritten and unspoken values, dispositions, and social and behavioral expectations that govern the interactions between teachers and students within schools. She challenges higher education administrators, faculty, researchers, and policymakers to develop and implement policies that would provide all students equal access to the academic cultural knowledge of postsecondary institutions. To maintain affirmative action as a cornerstone of recruitment process in higher education, the author stresses the importance of simultaneously developing new approaches for improving the retention of students of color and first-generation college students.

* Smith, Michael J., College Choice Process of First Generation Black Female Students: Encouraged to What End? Negro Educational Review, vol. 59, issues 3-4 (Fall-Win 2008), pp. 147-161. 15 pp.
Access to higher education in America is increasingly becoming a privilege for upper-class youth. On the other hand, youth in lower socioeconomic groups have less access and are increasingly marginalized and less able to compete in the college choice arena. While parental involvement is one way to fight against this unfortunate trend, parents of low-income Black students are often ill equipped to explore college choice and thereby achieve the goal of providing a college education for their children. This qualitative study describes how three Black single female parents experienced involvement from their own parents during their Kindergarten through 12th grade school years. Study findings suggest that low socioeconomic status (SES) Black parents are very involved in their children's education albeit towards outcomes other than college. Strategies for collaboration between college and Kindergarten through 12th grade personnel to increase access to college for lower socioeconomic Black students are offered.

* Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L. and Julie Rinker. An Emerging Professional Identity: Influences on the Achievement of High-Ability First-Generation College Females. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, vol. 29, issue 3 (2006), pp. 305-338.
Using a qualitative interview design, this study examined factors contributing to the academic achievement of gifted first-generation college females. Findings indicated an emerging professional identity as the primary influence on achievement. The participants' high ability served as a passport to accessing coursework, extracurricular experiences, and high-achieving friends who helped shape this emerging professional identity. Personal characteristics developed from their working-class backgrounds, including independence and a strong work ethic, were also found to be influential. Finally, the participants expressed a desire to explore their identities, even when this meant forming values different from those of their families and hometown communities. Implications of these findings are discussed, including suggestions for future research and recommendations for parents, counselors, and educators of gifted first generation college females. An Interview Guide is appended.

* Stephens, Nicole M. A cultural mismatch: The experience of first-generation college students in elite universities. Dissertation, Stanford University, 2010, 79 pp.
First-generation college students, whose parents have not attended college, are an increasing presence at elite colleges and universities. Admitting these students, however, is not enough to ensure that they can take full advantage of the opportunities available to them in college and succeed there. Indeed, research indicates that first-generation students experience more difficulty in college than students who have parents with 4-year college degrees, who we refer to as continuing-generation students. We propose that one reason first-generation students struggle is because they experience a cultural mismatch between their understandings of themselves, or their cultural models of self, and the models of self that are prevalent in the college culture.
America's elite colleges and universities, like most mainstream institutions in American society, tend to reflect and promote cultural models of independence as the norm. According to the independent model, the self is assumed to be separate from others, autonomous, in control, and free to choose based on personal preferences. For example, reflecting an independent model, colleges and universities tend to expect students to work individually, express their thoughts and opinions, and make choices based on personal preferences. In contrast to this culture of independence, first-generation college students often come from working-class contexts, which tend to promote understandings of the self as interdependent. According to the interdependent model, the self is connected to others, is part of a social unit, and is responsive to the social environment. For example, a student with an interdependent self would likely be motivated by opportunities to work on a team, meet social goals, and learn from others.
The current research explores the hypothesis that elite colleges and universities are structured primarily according to independence, that first-generation compared to continuing-generation students more often understand college in terms of interdependence, and that first-generation students' performance depends, in part, on experiencing a cultural match between their models of self and the college culture. First, to illuminate the norms of independence that we hypothesize structure the college environment, Study 1 examined college administrators' expectations for college students. Study 1 showed that, above all else, administrators expected students to develop independent selves. Themes pertaining to relationships were notably absent from their responses. Next, Study 2 examined first-generation and continuing-generation students' understandings of the purpose of college. Study 2 found that first-generation students understood college not only as an opportunity to accomplish individual goals, but also as a chance to help others (e.g., give back to their communities and help their families). Finally, Study 3 sought to match the college culture to first-generation college students' models of self. Specifically, students were either presented with a message about college that included themes of interdependence or a message that focused exclusively on independence. Study 3 found that first-generation students were more accurate on a novel puzzle task after being exposed to the culturally matched interdependent message compared to the independent message. These studies suggest that small changes in institutional norms, such as including a greater diversity of ideas and practices, could provide a more equitable learning environment for all students.

* Strayhorn, Terrell L. and Melvin Cleveland Terrell, eds. The Evolving Challenges of Black College Students: New Insights for Policy, Practice, and Research. Stylus Publishing, LLC, 2010. 248 pp. Available in Young Library.
Presenting new empirical evidence and employing fresh theoretical perspectives, this book sheds new light on the challenges that Black Students face from the time they apply to college through their lives on campus. The contributors make the case that the new generation of Black students differ in attitudes and backgrounds from earlier generations, and demonstrate the importance of understanding the diversity of Black identity. Successive chapters address the nature and importance of Black spirituality for reducing isolation and race-related stress, and as a source of meaning making; students' college selection and decision process and the expectations it fosters; first-generation Black women's motivations for attending college; the social-psychological determinants of academic achievement, and how resiliency can be developed and nurtured; institutional climate and the role of cultural centers; as well as identity development; and mentoring. The book includes a new research study of African American male undergraduates who identify as gay or bisexual; discusses the impact of student-to-student interactions in intellectual development and leadership building; describes the successful strategies used by historically Black institutions with at-risk men; considers the role of parents in Black male students' lives, and the applicability of the "millennial" label to the new cohort of African American students. The book offers new insights and concrete recommendations for policies and practices to provide the social and academic support for African American students to persist and fully benefit from their collegiate experience. It will be of value to student affairs personnel and faculty; constitutes a textbook for courses on student populations and their development; and provides a springboard for future research. Following an introduction by Colrrell Strayhorn, this book contains the following: (1) Knowing God, Knowing Self: African American College Students and Spirituality (Dafina Stewart); (2) Choosing College as a Life or Death Decision: First-generation African American Women's Reflections on College Choice (Rachele Winkle-Wagner); (3) Buoyant Believers: Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Success of Low-Income African American Collegians (Terrell Strayhorn); (4) Focusing on Achievement: African American Student Persistence in the Academy (Fred Bonner); (5) Triple Threat: Challenges and Supports of Black Gay Men at Predominantly White Campuses (Terrell Strayhorn, Amanda Blakewood, and James DeVita); (6) Challenges and Supports of Student-to-Student Interactions: Insights on African American Collegians (Belinda McFeeters); (7) "A HomeAaway From Home": Black Cultural Centers as Supportive Environments for African American Collegians at White Institutions (Terrell Strayhorn, Melvin Terrell, Jane Redmond, and Chutney Walton); (8) The Uniqueness of an HBCU Environment: How a Supportive Campus Climate Promotes Student Success (Robert Palmer and Estelle Young); (9) College-Bound Sons: Exploring Parental Influences on the Pre-Entry Attributes of Black Males (Darryl Holloman and Terrell Strayhorn); (10) Mentoring and African American Undergraduates' Perceptions of Academic Success (Tonya Saddler); and (11) New Directions for Future Research on African American Collegians (Terrell Strayhorn).

* Stuart, Alesia K., Ed.D. Factors that influence rural African American males' aspirations to attend college. University of Alabama, 2008, 148 pp.
This study was conducted to research factors which influence rural African American males in their college attendance decision. The study was an attempt to discover specific influences in the higher education pursuit from aspiration to enrollment. As African American males and low income students represent lower enrollment figures in higher education, this study attempts to provide research which may improve these numbers. The literature which provides the theoretical frame is related to Hossler (et al., 1999) and his research entitled Going to College. Hossler's study recommended additional research to study African American males. Hossler concluded this participant segment was influenced by different factors than the majority of study participants. This qualitative study includes student interviews. Three high schools in three counties in the Black Belt of rural Alabama were the sites selected for participants. Thirty African American male seniors' responses were transcribed and coded to identify themes related to influences stated by the participants. The students' voices provided insight into their college enrollment pursuit. The findings indicate rural students lack the resources and academic preparation significant for higher education admission. African American males in rural Alabama tend to be first generation students and lack information important to college enrollment. The rural high schools lack the personnel, college and career guidance to ensure participants are aware and prepared to traverse the process of college enrollment. This study identifies policy development needs to address inadequacies that African American males attending rural schools encounter during secondary enrollment. Research participants state college aspirations. Problems arise as participants move from the aspiration stage toward enrollment. Several factors will limit higher education opportunities for the participants. Inadequate knowledge on ACT scores, college cost financial aid, scholarship ineligibility, and careers may limit or reduce higher education enrollment for African American males in rural high schools.

* Stuart, Reginald. The Next Best Thing to Family. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, vol. 25, issue 16 (Sep 2008), pp. 14-15.
A generation ago, Latina sororities were in their infancy on American college campuses. Membership has ebbed and flowed since the founding of the first one, Lambda Theta Alpha, at Kean University in Union, New Jersey, in December 1975. Though still small in member numbers today, compared to more long-established mainstream fraternities and sororities, Latina sororities have emerged as an important ingredient for success for many Hispanic women in college. They find Latina sororities fill a personal void other campus groups don't. This article describes how Latina sororities are offering Hispanic students a support system.

* Study Suggests Colleges Do More To Reach Under-represented Students, Diverse Issues in Higher Education, vol. 24 no. 24 (January 10, 2008), p. 14.
A recent report from the National Postsecondary Education Cooperative reveals that information about college from traditional sources is not as accessible to or easily understood by low-income and first-generation students. Although college selection for traditional students begins years before enrollment with the gathering of formal and informal information, first-generation students tend to choose a college at the same time they develop an aspiration to attend college.

* Tauriac, Jesse J. The effects of secondary and postsecondary social support on the social and academic integration and college persistence of Black undergraduate subgroups. University of Massachusetts Boston, 2009, 123 pages.
Researchers express growing concern over the increasing higher education achievement gap between subgroups of Black American students (e.g., Massey, Mooney, Torres, & Charles, 2007). Whereas the number of degrees awarded to Black females has consistently grown for each of the past twenty years, the number of degrees awarded to Black males during each of these same years has either declined, stagnated, or, at best, only minimally increased (NCES, 2006). Similarly, investigators have found considerable differences between the academic experiences and success rates of U.S.-origin and immigrant-origin Black undergraduates (Massey et al., 2007), as well as between those of Black first-generation college students and Black students whose parents attended college (or second-plus-generation college students; Hertel, 2002). To address the aforementioned disparities, we drew on Tinto's model of persistence (1993) and social identity threat theory (e.g., Steele et al., 2002) and used path analysis based in structural equation modeling to test three-wave longitudinal models of college persistence for 101 ethnically-diverse Black undergraduates at 32 different predominantly White institutions. After comparing Black student subgroups' perceived support from high school faculty, college social support/integration, and college academic integration, we tested three models measuring the direct and indirect effects of these variables on college persistence. The first of the three models also measured the influence of gender, whereas the second and third models measured the influence of immigrant-generational status and college generational status. Fewer differences than we anticipated emerged between Black student subgroups, particularly from comparisons between males and females and first- and second-plus-generation college students. Most notably, however, comparisons between U.S.-origin and immigrant-origin students revealed that immigrant-origin students earned significantly higher grades during high school and persisted in college significantly more often than U.S.-origin students. Even when accounting for the significant positive effects of high school grades and SES on college persistence, there was a near significant trend for Black immigrant-origin undergraduates to persist at higher rates than U.S.-origin Black undergraduates. We also describe other significant differences, possible explanations for the lack of expected findings, and implications for educators, mentors and academic institutions.

* Thomas, Liz and Jocey Quinn. First Generation Entry into Higher Education: An International Study. Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press, 2007. Requires Interlibrary Loan.
Deals with children of immigrants who become first-generation college students.

* Townsend, Yvonne. Examining Gender Differences in Persistence in Higher Education Among African American Students. University of Kentucky Master's Theses. 2011.
This Study examined issues related to persistence in higher education among African American students, using the prominent model proposed by Vincent Tinto. The intention was to examine the growing gender gap among African American students. The study examines factors from the Tinto model such as high school GPA, College GPA, college social integration and academic integration to try and explain the effects of gender among African American students. This research also attempts to elaborate the Tinto model by considering high school extracurricular activities as a pre-entry attribute that has an effect on persistence in higher education. Use of the Tinto model, even in an elaborated state, did not explain the effects of gender among African American students. This research suggests that other factors not included in the model have some effect on student persistence; one such factor could be gender socialization which can lead to different patterns in educational achievement.

* Tsai, Tien-I. Socialization and Information Horizons: Source Use Behavior of First-generation and Continuing-generation College Students. Dissertation. Library and Information Studies, University of Wisconsin, 2013.
Incorporating Sonnenwald's information horizons (IH), Astin's Input-Environment- Outcome (I-E-O) model, and Weidman's model of undergraduate socialization, this study examines FGC and non-FGC students' socialization experiences in relation to their information behavior. The theoretical framework of IH describes how contexts, situations, and social networks shape individuals' information behavior; this framework emphasizes the role of social networks in information-seeking activities and the relationships among sources used by individuals. I-E-O and undergraduate socialization models emphasize the interaction aspect in undergraduate socialization. To delineate the complex networks in college students' information-seeking activities, this study investigates how students position various information sources on their academic IH maps and examines the sequential and referral relationships among sources. Specifically, the study focuses on the roles of peers, professors, and parents in IH. With an explanatory mixed-methods research design, this study investigates how students' backgrounds and college socialization experiences influence their IH. The findings also demonstrate that students with different FGC status and in different class cohorts have different socialization experiences. Socializing agents, such as parents, peers, and professors, are important factors affecting students' academic source use behavior; information literacy courses positively affect students' use of the library and experts. The study reveals that socialization elements are an important aspect to be added to the framework of IH and helps advance the use of mixed-method approaches to study information behavior.

* Viaud, Karina M. Pursuing the Doctoral Degree: A Symbolic Interpretation of First-Generation African American/Black and Hispanic Doctoral Students. Dissertation. California State University San Marcos.; College of Education, Health and Human Services, 2014. 227 pages.
Completion rate for a doctoral degree is much lower for African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics who are largely represented as first-generation. First-generation African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics have been reported as less likely to pursue a doctoral degree, and their experiences in the doctoral program have been less documented. The study was a qualitative narrative inquiry in which experiences turned into stories were told by four first-generation African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics pursuing their doctoral degree in Education.

* Vuong, Bi and Christen Cullum Hairston. Using Data to Improve Minority-Serving Institution Success l Institute for Higher Education Policy. 2012. 8 pp.
To meet our nation's college completion goals by 2025, postsecondary institutions must graduate a total of 23 million more students over the next 13 years. As the higher education sector continues to consider strategies to meet this ambitious goal, it is crucial that higher education institutions use data effectively to analyze where they are, where they need to be, and what steps will get them there. Many institutions that serve large numbers of 21st century students who are crucial to meeting the goal and have been traditionally underserved in the past--such as students of color, low-income students, and first-generation college students--have extensive knowledge of how to best support students and reduce barriers from enrollment to graduation. Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) in particular have historically educated and graduated a large proportion of underserved students. Therefore, MSIs have great potential for graduating an even larger number of college graduates over the next decade. This brief highlights how MSIs can better identify, collect, and use data for internal decision making and provide external audiences with a deeper understanding of how MSIs contribute to the higher education landscape. Specifically, this brief highlights how MSIs from the Lumina MSI-Models of Success project have used data to implement policy and programmatic changes on their campuses in support of student and institutional success. The goal of this brief is to continue a conversation about ways MSIs can build upon their data work to improve future reporting, analyses, and decision making. In addition, the lessons shared in the brief have broad application to other institutions, especially those that serve students from disadvantaged backgrounds. This is the second in a series of briefs by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP) to feature emerging themes from the Lumina MSI-Models of Success program. (Contains 3 boxes and 10 footnotes.)

* Walpole, MaryBeth, Ed. Economically and Educationally Challenged Students in Higher Education: Access to Outcomes. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, ASHE Higher Education Report, Vol. 33, No. 3 (2007), pp. 1-113.
This volume examines conceptual frameworks and models that flow from scholars' definitions and operationalizations of social class: status attainment theory, human capital theory, the financial nexus model, Bourdieuian theory, and critical race theory. Since students often have multiple social locations that affect their educational process, the author looks at students' multiple identities, including examining the synergistic effects of being from a particular social class location while also belonging to specific racial and ethnic groups. She also explores how gender intersects with social class and racial/ethnic identities to shape college access, experiences, and outcomes. Because students' actions are made within an institutional context, the volume then turns to the contributions of organizational responses and policies specific to this group of students. Finally, the volume concludes with implications and recommendations for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers. In order to draw those conclusions on how to increase the numbers of low-socioeconomic-status students who attend and graduate from colleges and universities, it is critical to first understand how researchers, policymakers, and practitioners define these students.

* Ward, Lee; Michael J. Siegel; and Zebulun Davenport. First-generation college students: Understanding and Improving the Experience from Recruitment to Commencement. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, 2012. 147 pages.
Contents: 1. Who Are First-Generation Students? 2. Transition into College 3. Transition Through College 4. Class, Culture, Race, and Ethnicity 5. Transforming How We Work with First-Generation Students 6. A Holistic Approach to Student Success.

* Watson, Jamal. On Life Support. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, vol. 23, issue 16 (Sep 2006), pp. 36-39.
The Hispanic Center of Excellence, which is located on the campus of the Albert Einstein Medical Center in the Bronx, is just one of the few federally funded programs in the country charged with producing new Hispanic physicians. Recently, the Office of Management and Budget, a federal department that assists President Bush in overseeing the preparation of the federal budget, told the staff at the Center of Excellence that they would not receive the three years of funding that they had been promised because the services they offered were considered "ineffective." However, Hal Strelnick, the center's director and 25-year veteran of the college, believes that the department's decision was wrong. He says that the five-year-old center, which supports about 800 students each year, successfully achieved 17 of its 18 stated objectives for the year. The problem, he says, is that Washington bureaucrats don't understand the specifics of rigorously training students--many of whom are the first in their families to go to college--for a life in the medical field. This article reports on Congress' decisions to erase funding for dozens of minority focused medical training centers like the Hispanic Center of Excellence, leaving them scrambling to stay afloat.

* Weggel, Anna. In Seattle, a Firsthand Lesson in College Access, The Education Digest, vol. 73, issue 8 (April 2008) pp. 28-31.
An article condensed from the December 14, 2007, issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education. A program conceived by a University of Washington freshman puts students in the role of admission counselors at local high schools. The Dream Project teaches undergraduates about higher-education policy at the same time that they assist disadvantaged high-school students in applying to college. The program pairs students at the university with first-generation and low-income students in six Seattle high schools. The college students assist the high-schoolers in preparing for the SAT, filling out college applications, and applying for scholarships. Unlike many similar programs, the Dream Project is paired with a course on its campus. Students study matters of social justice, educational opportunity, and socioeconomic mobility. The project hopes to send a message that the University of Washington is still attempting to recruit minority students nine years after the state's voters prohibited the use of racial preferences in public-university admissions.

* What Works in Student Retention? Fourth National Survey. Four-Year Colleges and Universities with Twenty Percent or More Black Students Enrolled. ACT, Inc. 2010. 26 pp.
This report presents the findings for four year colleges and universities with twenty percent or more Black students enrolled that participated in ACT's 2010 What Works in Student Retention survey. The report contains information pertinent to only these institutions. Appendices include: (1) Data for Four Year Colleges and Universities with greater than or equal to 20% Black Student Enrollment; and (2) What Works in Student Retention Instrument. (Contains 13 tables.) [For the main report, "What Works in Student Retention? Fourth National Survey. Report for All Colleges and Universities", see ED510474.]

* Winkle-Wagner, Rachele,  "Choosing College as a Life or Death Decision: First-Generation African American Women's Reflections on College Choice," in The Evolving Challenges of Black College Students: New Insights for Policy, Practice, and Research, Terrell L. Strayhorn and Melvin C. Terrell, eds. Stylus, 2010. Young Library - 4th Floor:  LC2781 .E86 2010.

* Zwerling, Steven and Howard B. London, First-generation students: confronting the cultural issues, Jossey-Bass, 1992. [This does have a community college focus.]