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This guide will help you locate primary source oral history interviews on the Frontier Nursing Service.
Last Updated: Aug 28, 2013 URL: http://libguides.uky.edu/SCOHFrontierNursing Print Guide Email Alerts

Frontier Nursing Service Project: FNS 01 - FNS 50 Print Page
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Annotated Guide to the Frontier Nursing Service Oral History Project: FNS 01 - FNS 32

If not available online, audio copies and/or transcripts of the interviews in this project are available in the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History.

Guide Compiled by Susan Allen

                            

78OH141 FNS 01

MARVIN BRECKINRIDGE PATTERSON

 Date:          May 13, 1978

 Location:      Wendover, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr.

Marvin Patterson, a second cousin of Mary  Breckinridge, was the first FNS courier.  She recounts her  journey to Appalachia and her duties at Wendover.  Patterson filmed "The Forgotten Frontier," an aid in FNS recruiting and fund-raising, and has held national posts in the organization.  She discusses Mary Breckinridge's daily  routine, hobbies, friendships and family, and also her back injury.  Patterson comments upon FNS personnel and patrons over the years, including the visit of Sir Leslie MacKenzie. Since her FNS days, Patterson has become a renowned photographer. The interview discusses her travels and career.

 

78OH142 FNS 02

JOHN CALDWELL 

 Date:          July 6, 1978

 Place:         Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          40 min.

John Caldwell, a long-time resident of Leslie County, comments upon farming, logging, digging ginseng, raising bees and hunting rattlesnakes.  He has had little experience of professional medical treatment and remarks upon local midwives.  Caldwell owns the farm formerly belonging to John Shell, who reputedly died at the age of 131.

 

78OH143FNS 03

ED MORGAN 

 Date:          July 7, 1978

Location:      Wendover, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr. 45 min.

Ed Morgan's father made land available to Mary Breckinridge for the establishment of FNS headquarters at Wendover.  Morgan discusses the building of Wendover in the l920s and comments upon his acquaintance with Breckinridge. He talks about transportation of seriously ill patients in the early days of the organization and his own assistance with such trips.  Besides school experiences and social activities, Morgan relates his background in logging and coal mining. 


78OH144 FNS 04

MATT GREY 

 Date:          July 21, 1978

 Location:      Little Creek, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr.

Matt Grey's parents taught him to deliver babies and to treat illnesses.  He describes various treatments and remedies used by the mountain people and provides extensive commentary on the use of herbs.  Grey contributes his recollections of Mary Breckinridge and praises the benefits provided by the FNS nurses.  He also comments upon changes in the FNS over the years and tells why he thinks the FNS should not charge for home visits.

 

78OH145 FNS 05

JAILEY SIZEMORE 

 Date:          July 26, 1978

 Location:      Thousandsticks, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          55 min.

Jailey Sizemore describes Hyden before World War I and talks about Court Day.  Other activities she recalls include corn hoeings and dances, and she answers queries about quilting and making moonshine.  Sizemore gives details of plowing and planting with a mule team, describes various processes of canning and preserving, and talks about travel in the mountains before modern roads.  She also evaluates FNS services.

 

78OH146 FNS 06

BETTY LESTER 

 Date:          March 3, 1978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Jonathan Fried, other couriers

 P.T.:          50 min.

Betty Lester gives some background of the Breckinridges and of Mary Breckinridge's immediate family.  She also indicates the personal circumstances that led to the establishment of the FNS.  Lester mentions the high maternal mortality rate in Leslie County before the FNS arrived.  She talks about Breckinridge's experiences in Scotland and France as well as the building of Wendover and the small hospital. Lester goes into details of how services were set up and the nurses established in district centers.  She explains her own training in London, England and some of her personal experiences in the FNS area.  Also discussed is the Frontier Graduate School of Midwifery, begun during World War Two.

 

78OH147 FNS 07

FRANK BOWLING

 Date:          July 31, 1978

 Location:      Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          2 hrs. 15 min.

Frank Bowling tells of going to a three-room school about 1907.  He discusses slavery as it once existed in the mountains and recalls his acquaintance with Civil War veterans.  Besides describing the establishment of the Red Bird Center and the surveying of the land around Wendover, Bowling comments upon his acquaintance with Mary Breckinridge and cites examples of FNS care at the time of World War Two. He also gives his views concerning the effects of government relief programs and of the land boom in the mountains.  Additional topics are logging, making moonshine, and planting by the phase of the moon.

78OH148 FNS 08

MARTHA LADY 

 Date:          August 4, 1978

 Location:      Springfield, Ohio

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          40 min.

Martha Lady took her midwifery training at the FNS School of Midwifery in Hyden in 1960-61 and became a nurse-midwife in Africa.  She describes the similarities between her experience with African women and with Appalachian women served by the FNS.  Lady discusses further experience as a nurse-midwife in Rhodesia and Zambia and also some work with an obstetrical clinic in Springfield.  She comments upon the function of and the need for midwives and also the attitude of doctors toward midwifery.  Lady also recalls Mary Breckinridge at the time of her eightieth birthday.

 

78OH149 FNS 09

LAWRENCE BOWLING

 Date:          August 10, 1978

 Location:      Flat Creek, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          45 min.

Lawrence Bowling gives details of growing up in the mountains in the l930s and going to school in a one-room schoolhouse.  He tells of celebrating Christmas with biscuits and gingerbread instead of the daily cornbread. Besides his work for a logging company, Bowling discusses his job as a maintenance worker for the Red Bird and Flat Creek outpost centers.  He also describes the work of the FNS nurses at Red Bird. 

 78OH150 FNS 10

MARY BREWER AND CLYDE BREWER 

 Date:          August 10, 1978

 Location:      Wooton, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          40 min.

Mary Brewer came to Leslie County as a social worker with the WPA program in l939.  She published a collection of Leslie County stories entitled Of Bolder Men, later republished as Rugged Trails to Appalachia.  Brewer indicates her concern over the image of local people conveyed by the media prior to her publication and specifies the image deliberately fostered by the FNS in fund-raising.  She knew Mary Breckinridge and would have tea with her while conversing in French.  Brewer also taught high school in Hyden.  She comments upon local traditions as well as changes in the county over the years. Clyde Brewer remarks upon his work for the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) program in Leslie County in the 1930s.

 

78OH151 FNS 11

GEORGIA LEDFORD

 Date:          August 17, l978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          50 min.

Members of Georgia Ledford's family have served on the Clay County Committee of the FNS and have worked for the FNS in various capacities.  Ledford recalls her association with Mary Breckinridge and details the activities of the nurse-midwives, commenting upon their effectiveness and the impact of the FNS in the local area.  The interview also includes a discussion of handmade furniture.

78OH152 FNS 12

GLENDA DAVIS 

 Date:          May 17, 197

 Location:      Clay County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Carol Crowe-Carraco

 P.T.:          1 hr. 20 min.

Glenda Davis was born in l9l9 in Clay County, where no professional medical assistance was available.  As a child, she became acquainted with the Clara Ford Center in her district; as a young adult, Davis served on a local FNS committee.  At one point a new water source was needed for the hospital, and the services of a local "water witch" were successfully employed.  Six out of nine children in her family attended college, and Davis taught a one-room school in Clay County after she graduated.  She talks about her Cincinnati cousins coming home to the farm to work during the Depression.  Davis describes FNS activities and gives her recollections of Mary Breckinridge as well as other FNS personnel.

  78OH153 FNS 13

JESSIE SHEPPARD 

 Date:          August 22, l978

 Location:      Rockhouse Creek, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Linda Green

 P.T.:          30 min.

Jessie Sheppard was born in 1913 and grew up on Ellis's Branch.  Her father helped to build Wendover in the 1920s, and she recalls a Christmas party given by Mary Breckinridge for the children in the immediate area.  All of Sheppard's children were delivered by FNS nurses.  She tells of her acquaintance with Mary Breckinridge and a number of the FNS nurse-midwives in the course of describing her life in Leslie County.

78OH154 FNS 14

SOPHIA COUCH

 Date:          August 22, 1978

 Location:      Rockhouse Creek, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr.

Sophia Couch was born in l889 on Short Creek in Leslie County.  She relates her grandfather's encounter with Native Americans in Harlan and her grandmother's experiences with wolves and a panther.  Couch describes the log home of her grandparents and indicates that her grandmother baked in the fireplace without a stove.  When Couch was very young, there were no churches in the area, and she did not know what a church was. She recalls dances with banjo music and also tells two "haint" tales or ghost stories associated with people she has known.  Couch's husband helped to build Wendover in the 1920s.

 

78OH155 FNS 15

DAN YOUNG

 Date:          August 28 and 29, 1978

 Location:      Owl's Nest, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr. 45 min.

Dan Young was born in 1897 and worked in the coal mines in the vicinity of Hazard beginning in 1916.  He discusses mining operations and attempts at unionization. Young's grandfather sold his mineral rights for five dollars an acre.  Young describes his work as a stonemason and discusses log cabin building in detail.  Additional topics are chair-making and the logging industry.  Young tells of his acquaintance with Mary Breckinridge and praises the FNS nurses, who often visited his home.  All of Young's thirteen children, however, were delivered by a local doctor or a local midwife.       

78OH156 FNS 16

TEMPIE YOUNG

 Date:          August 29, 1978

 Location:      Owl's Nest, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Linda Green

 P.T.:          50 min.

Tempie Young was born on Cutshin Creek in l905.  She began to work in the fields when she was six, and she describes the usual farm chores.  When Young was a child, people dried nearly all their food, because they did not have a place to keep canned things from freezing.  Young's family raised tobacco and also ginned their own cotton. She tells of her father's work as a stonemason and comments upon his practice of taking care of older persons.  Young talks about the flu epidemic after World War I and also describes her life in a coal camp after she married. 

79OH16 FNS 17

ROE DAVIDSON

 Date:          July 20, 1978

 Location:      Davidson Fork, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr. 20 min.

Roe Davidson, a farmer and coal miner, recalls Hyden before the first car came to the area.  He indicates that before the FNS arrived he was treated by an herb doctor. Besides recounting tales and riddles told to him by his parents, Davidson tells about making molasses from sugar cane, parching corn, making moonshine, sulfuring apples, smoking meat, making soap, and doing laundry by hand. Davidson asserts that crops grew better when he was young, not being troubled by modern-day pests, and that the only fertilizer used was natural fertilizer from the farm.  He also comments upon local churches and discusses snake handling.

 

79OH17 FNS 18

ALDEN GAY

 Date:          September 1, 1978

 Location:      Oneida, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Linda Green

 P.T.:          30 min.

Alden Gay was hired to feed and water the nurses' horses while the FNS outpost center at Brutus was being constructed in 1930.  At that time the area had no electricity and extremely bad roads.  He describes community support and the work of the nurses in promoting preventive medicine and more nutritious food at the same time they were treating actual illnesses and injuries.  Gay discusses transitions in the local area and the success of the local FNS committee in raising funds for the Brutus Center.

 

79OH18 FNS 19

SHILOH GAY

 Date:          September 8, l978

 Location:      Oneida, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Alden Gay

 P.T.:          25 min.

Shiloh Gay was born about 1890 and recalls some early settlers on Big Bullskin Creek as well as details of daily life in the late 1800s.  He tells about salt wells at Oneida and explains how people lived off the land.  Most people farmed in the summer and worked in the coal mines during the winter.  Gay discusses the end of the century, when people began to run timber down the rivers on rafts. He remembers Mary Breckinridge signing up men to work and wagons and teams to haul supplies when she was setting up the outpost center at Brutus, and he tells of the nurses' work in the area.  Gay's family weathered the Depression better than most because his daughter worked for the FNS and his wife did laundry for the nurses.

79OH19 FNS 20

DELLA GAY

 Date:          September 8, 1978

 Location:      Bullskin Creek, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Linda Green

 P.T.:          50 min.

Della Gay was a young woman in the 1920s, and she talks about life on a mountain farm--grinding corn, making molasses, stringing beans, and performing other farm chores. She describes the work of "granny women" in delivering babies and details the changes brought by the FNS nurses at a time when doctors were difficult to reach. Gay comments upon Mary Breckinridge in her later years and mentions Breckinridge's funeral.  She also discusses treatment at an FNS clinic.

79OH21 FNS 22

FELIX SHEPPARD

 Date:          September 11, 1978

 Location:      Rockhouse Creek, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          50 min.

Felix Sheppard talks about his life in Leslie County on Rockhouse Creek and mentions such things as the various native fruits available when he was growing up.  Sheppard gives details of the logging operation he worked for and comments upon the change from horses to bulldozers.  In addition, he notes the changed value of various kinds of timber.  The services of local midwives, who delivered Sheppard's only child, are also described.

  79OH22 FNS 23

ALBERT BOWLING

 Date:          September 12, 1978

 Location:      Brutus, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          30 min.

 Albert Bowling worked for the Brutus Center in the early days of the FNS and speaks of the nurses' rounds on horseback.  He recalls FNS fees as one dollar per year per family and five dollars for delivery of a baby.  He indicates the different types of work available in the l930s, mainly barrel stave work and jobs with the WPA.  At that time teachers could teach with an eighth-grade education.  Bowling tells of holding dances after corn hoeings and of going visiting.  He also comments upon the local people's dependence upon the Brutus Clinic.

 79OH23 FNS 24

NANCY BARNES

 Date:          September 12, 1978

 Location:      Sizerock, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Linda Green

 P.T.:          l hr.

Nancy Barnes was delivered by Betty Lester and tells of working for the Bowlingtown [Bullskin Creek] Center when she was sixteen.  Besides taking care of the cooking, the house-cleaning, and the horses, Barnes recalls participating in bean stringings and square dances in people's homes in the 1940s.  She recounts her acquaintance and experiences with the FNS nurses at both the Bowlingtown and the Brutus clinics.  At one time Barnes contracted a difficult case of tuberculosis, and she describes the care she received in that illness as well as the care of her child who had rheumatic fever.  Barnes recalls Mary Breckinridge in her later years, especially her story-telling.

79OH24 FNS 25

OSCAR HOWARD

 Date:          September 22, 1978

 Location:      Greasy Creek, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Marian Barrett

 P.T.:          45 min.

Oscar Howard has lived on the same farm in Leslie County all his life, having bought the family home from his father.  Howard has worked as a farmer, a carpenter and a blacksmith, besides working in the logging industry.  He tells of getting along in the Depression years by raising as much food as he could and also utilizing meat and supplies provided by the government.  Howard recalls helping to make a road over the mountain to the Beech Fork Clinic and of helping to build the clinic.  FNS nurses delivered all of Howard's children.  He comments upon changes in people's attitudes toward each other in his locality and also contributes his political views.

 79OH25 FNS 26

 HELEN H. FORTUNE AND CARL D. FORTUNE

 Date:          October 6, 1978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          40 min.

Helen Fortune's father [W. A. Hifner, Jr.] was Mary Breckinridge's accountant in the early days of the FNS. Fortune recalls her acquaintance with Breckinridge and gives some background of Breckinridge's interest in nursing, including her World War One experience.  With Carl Fortune, she comments upon FNS personnel, the establishment of the hospital at Hyden, and Mary Breckinridge's later career. Early attitudes toward midwifery among professional medical personnel in the state are also discussed.

79OH26 FNS 27

MARY WILSON

 Date:          October 6, 1978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Tony Horowitz

 P.T.:          20 min.

Mary Wilson discusses assistance to the FNS as a special project of the Daughters of the Colonial Wars, beginning in 1950.  She explains membership in the DCW and also the functions of the organization.  Wilson comments upon the DCW scholarship program for FNS students and sponsorship of programs at the hospital such as equipping the Pediatrics Clinic.  She tells of visiting Wendover and touring the local area in a jeep before the roads were improved.  Also mentioned are Mary Breckinridge's travels to make fund-raising speeches and her administration of FNS affairs at Wendover while in her eighties.

79OH27 FNS 28

LOUISE ACKERMAN

 Date:          October 6, 1978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Tony Horowitz

 P.T.:          20 min.

At the time of the interview Louise Ackerman was president of the Daughters of the Colonial Wars, an organization that has assisted the FNS with funds since its beginning as the Kentucky Committee for Mothers and Babies. Ackerman cites the English ties of the two organizations as what originally drew them together.  She mentions equipment furnished for Mary Breckinridge Hospital and contributions to benefit children in the FNS area.  The DCW has given scholarships to nursing students at the FNS and has one vote in the FNS Board of Governors.

79OH28 FNS 29

MARGARET GAGE

 Date:          October 16, l978

 Location:      Pacific Palisades, California

 Interviewer:   Marion Beasley and W. B. Rogers Beasley

 P.T.:          55 min.

Margaret Gage first encountered Mary Breckinridge when Breckinridge gave a slide presentation on the FNS at Bennett College in the late 1920s.  Gage toured the FNS area in 1940. Having been a close friend of Breckinridge, she comments at length upon Breckinridge's personal history, including her association with Sister Adeline and spiritualism.  Later a member of the FNS Board of Trustees, Gage discusses the local people and the effectiveness of the FNS operation.  She also mentions Breckinridge's last years at Wendover and the few days following her death.

79OH29 FNS 30

BARKLEY MOORE

 Date:          October 26, 1978

 Location:      Oneida, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          45 min.

Barkley Moore discusses the Oneida Baptist Institute and the maternity hospital associated with it.  He also tells of a community doctor making rounds on horseback before the health care facility was established.  For a time the medical work of the hospital was administered by the Commonwealth of Kentucky, with doctors being rotated from the University of Louisville.  In l954 the state government withdrew, and Moore details the difficulty of locating an organization to run the facility.  After a period in which the Seventh Day Adventist Church administered the hospital, the FNS took over its operation for a time.  Moore comments upon the nursing clinic staffed and maintained by FNS personnel.  He gives details of the relationships among the school, the community, and the FNS.

79OH31 FNS 32

CHARLIE RICE AND ALTA RICE

 Date:          October 30, 1978

 Location:      Dry Hill, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          2 hrs.

Charlie Rice was born in Owsley County in 1896.  His father moved the family to Leslie County in 1906 because of the Rice-Gabbard feud.  Rice never attended school, and after working in his father's sawmill and gristmill he earned money doing farm chores, working in a powder plant in Ohio, and working in the logging and coal industries. He was active in the miners' union and president of the local at Cutshin. Rice gives details of mining operations and pay scales.  He also discusses labor disputes involving strikes at the mines and comments upon strip mining and its effects.  Some information is given concerning black residents in Leslie County.  Rice praises Mary Breckinridge and her accomplishments.  He recalls the local midwife who delivered one of his children and tells of a mountain doctor who made rounds on horseback before the FNS came to the area.  Alta Rice briefly contributes to the interview.

 

Annotated Guide to the Frontier Nursing Service Oral History Project: FNS 51 - FNS 100

If not available online, audio copies and/or transcripts of the interviews in this project are available in the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History.

 

79OH77 FNS 33

ALBERT B. CHANDLER

 Date:          November 6, 1978

 Location:      Versailles, Kentucky

 Interviewers:  Harry M. Caudill and Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          l hr. 5 min.

Former governor A. B. "Happy" Chandler discusses his accomplishments as governor, including the establishment of the Medical School at the University of Kentucky.  He mentions the formation in the 1950s of the Eastern Kentucky Planning Commission, which he terms a forerunner of the Appalachian Regional Commission.  He also recalls a visit to Morgan and Breathitt counties with Eleanor Roosevelt in 1938. While campaigning in Leslie County, he visited with Mary Breckinridge at Wendover.  Chandler comments upon Richard Nixon's visit to Hyden in 1979, his first public appearance following his resignation as president in 1974.

 79OH78 FNS 34

JEAN TOLK

 Date:          November 1, 1978

 Location:      Barbourville, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr. 15 min.

 Before the advent of the FNS, Jean Tolk was familiar with the lack of medical facilities in Leslie County.  The Louisville Public Health Department sent her as a public health nurse to provide medical assistance to local residents in the absence of two itinerant doctors.  Tolk details the establishment of a small dispensary at Dryhill, where she provided vaccinations and minor medical treatment.  She tells of the visit of Mary Breckinridge and of subsequent cooperation with the FNS.  Also mentioned are two murders that occurred in the course of her experience in the mid-1920s.  Tolk describes Hyden during that period and comments upon conditions in Leslie County during the Depression, when government relief provided unfamiliar foods such as grapefruit.

 79OH79 FNS 35

GERTRUDE ISAACS

 Date:          November 15, 1978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          4 hrs. 20 min.

 Gertrude Isaacs, who has her doctorate in nursing, was Co-Director of the Family Nurse Practitioner Program with Dr. W.B. Rogers Beasley in 1971 and then was named Education Director of the Frontier School of Midwifery and Family Nursing.  In 1977 she became a consultant to the school.  She speaks of her acquaintance with Mary Breckinridge and of what the FNS meant to the local people. Isaacs discusses Breckinridge's philosophy of preventive care and teaching the people to care for themselves.  She comments upon the change in atmosphere in FNS relations with local residents when the nurses stopped visiting in the homes.  Isaacs believes that part of what Breckinridge created has been lost through over-regulation by federal and state governments and by Medicare and Medicaid.  Also discussed is the controversy over physician support of nurse-midwives and the increasing demand for home deliveries.  Besides giving statistics, Isaacs clarifies a number of terms, differentiating between primary medical care and primary health care.  She also discusses social relations within the mountain family and the position of children.

 79OH80 FNS 36

RUTH HUSTON

 Date:          November 18, 1978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          25 min.

 Ruth Huston was originally from Pennsylvania and first visited Hyden in 1924.  She was interested in education work being conducted by the Presbyterian Church and decided to stay in Kentucky.  Huston, who was independently wealthy, assisted with a girls' dormitory for high school students in Hyden.  She also owned the house rented by Mary Breckinridge for the FNS and became a member of the first local FNS committee.  Huston discusses Breckinridge's style of leadership and her persuasive ability, as well as the response of the local people to her work.

 79OH81 FNS 37

HALLIE MAGGARD

 Date:          November 20, 1978

 Location:      Owl's Nest, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          50 min.

 Hallie Maggard recalls Hyden at the turn of the century, with board sidewalks and "stepping stones across the street for the mud."  She discusses her grandfather, John Hyden, for whom the town was named, and her father's work as a store owner.  Maggard also talks about local black people, the establishment of the FNS, and changes in Hyden during her lifetime.

 79OH82 FNS 38

PAUL HENSLEY

 Date:          November 28, 1978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Tony Horowitz

 P.T.:          25 min.

Paul Hensley has been the owner and editor of the Thousandsticks News since 1967 and discusses the role of a small-town newspaper.  A native of Leslie County and a former public schoolteacher, he also served as executive secretary of the Kentucky River Mining Institute.  Hensley comments upon the coal industry and local attempts to unionize the mines.

 79OH83 FNS 39

PHILLIP ISAACS

 Date:          November 22, 1978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          35 min.

 Phillip Isaacs came to Hyden in July of 1971 to supervise construction of Mary Breckinridge Hospital.  He discusses various problems that arose during the construction process.  Isaacs also gives his impressions of eastern Kentucky and comments upon the relationship between the FNS and the local people.

79OH84 FNS 40

KRIT KEEN

 Date:          November 29, 1978

 Location:      Buckhorn, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          50 min.

 Krit Keen was born at Bullskin Creek in Leslie County in 1891.  He taught school for several years before becoming a retail merchant and postmaster at Buckhorn.  Keen discusses the operation of a general store and comments upon living conditions in the county.  He relates stories he has heard about the Civil War and gives his own recollections of life during the Great Depression.

 79OH85 FNS 41

SADIE STIDHAM AND JUDER STIDHAM

 Date:          December 1, 1978

 Location:      Keowee, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr. 15 min.

 Sadie Stidham's father, Isaac Wells, served on the first FNS committee and attended the organizational meeting in Frankfort.  She describes the fee structure of FNS medical services and the types of treatment offered.  At a later time she became a member of the Beech Fork Committee, and she discusses Mary Breckinridge's work with that committee.  Juder Stidham recalls particular incidents such as the time he helped carry a woman two miles to the hospital in Hyden. He also comments upon the effects of the Great Depression and the importance of the FNS during that period.  Children of the Stidhams were born at the hospital in Hyden.

 79OH86 FNS 42

ELSIE MAIER

 Date:          December 5, 1978

 Location:      Hyden, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          50 min.

 Elsie Maier attended nursing school in New York City and in 1962 enrolled in a midwifery course at the FNS.  She subsequently was employed as a district nurse-midwife at the Red Bird Center.  Maier became well acquainted with Mary Breckinridge, whom she describes as a strong individual who maintained a family atmosphere at the FNS. Maier explains the roles of the local district committees and the relationship between the FNS and the local people.  Also discussed are the effects of government programs of the 1960s and the FNS family planning program.  Maier taught in the FNS midwifery school and later became its director.  She comments upon how much she has learned from area residents.

 79OH136 FNS 43

EDWARD RAY AND LOUISE RAY

 Date:          December 7, 1978

 Location:      Lexington, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          40 min.

 Dr. Edward Ray began his medical practice in Lexington in 1929.  He discusses his role in establishing a medical school at the University of Kentucky and his appointment as head of the Division of Urology at the University of Kentucky Medical Center.  During the early 1960s he treated Mary Breckinridge and became well acquainted with her.  Ray admires the work of the FNS because the local people were permitted to retain their self-respect.  He mentions other contacts with the FNS, including patient referrals and internships from the University of Kentucky Medical School. Louise Ray comments on her acquaintance with Mary Breckinridge and other members of the Breckinridge family. She also indicates that their daughter served for one summer as an FNS courier.

 79OH137 FNS 44

FORD BARGER

 Date:          December 7, 1978

 Location:      Waco, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr. 15 min.

 Ford Barger's father, a logger and storekeeper in Leslie County at the turn of the century, donated land to the FNS for the establishment of the Bowlingtown [Bullskin Creek] Center.  Barger himself worked in logging and established a store at Bowlingtown in 1921.  He also served as the community's postmaster from 1930 to 1959.  Barger recalls Mary Breckinridge from the time he served on the Bowlingtown Committee of the FNS.  He discusses the retail business, logging, "granny women," the Great Depression, and the eventual displacement of Bowlingtown residents by the building of the Buckhorn Dam in the late 1950s.

  79OH138 FNS 45

 EDNA ROCKSTROH

 Date:          December 1, 1979

 Location:      Santa Cruz, California

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          45 min.

 Edna Rockstroh was asked by Mary Breckinridge to come to the FNS after she had served in France with the CARD effort (Committee Americaine pour les Regiones Devastees), directed by Anne Morgan.  She took her midwifery course in England, and she and Freida Caffin came to Kentucky seen the FNS was still the Kentucky Committee for Mothers and Babies.  Rockstroh contributes many anecdotes of her experiences with Mary Breckinridge and with the local people.  She suspects that she delivered the first baby delivered by the FNS in Leslie County, and she also took part in an early survey conducted by Breckinridge to determine statistics on birth and on infant and maternal mortality in three counties. Rockstroh discusses Breckinridge's occasional "trading post," at which she would barter clothing, shoes, and other items from contributors for chickens and eggs.  Rockstroh also indicates what was discussed at local committee meetings. She served at the FNS beginning in 1923 and left in 1927 due to a bronchial condition.

79OH139 FNS 46

CAROLYN GAY

 Date:          January 16, 1979

 Location:      Brutus, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          1 hr. 20 min.

 Carolyn Gay was born in 1948 in Leslie County.  She relates school experiences and talks about a woman's role on a mountain farm.  Gay also discusses political rallies and box suppers that she recalls from her childhood.  She indicates that social life changed dramatically in the 1960s and 1970s; due to increased travel and access to radio, television, and the telephone, people in Leslie County socialized much less in 1979 than before.  Gay's father, born in 1872, helped Mary Breckinridge to obtain the land for the Brutus Center and to have the center built.  Gay discusses her mother's and her own experiences with FNS care in childbirth.  She also talks about the local people in relation to publicity they have received.

79OH140 FNS 47

HUGO JANUTOLO

 Date:          January 18, 1979

 Location:      Owl's Nest, Leslie County, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Dale Deaton

 P.T.:          2 hrs.

 Hugo Janutolo was born in Virginia in 1907.  He moved to Italy with his family at the age of five or six and returned to the U.S. at the age of eighteen.  He traveled as an apprentice bricklayer in Virginia, West Virginia and eastern Kentucky and later lived in Hyden, where he worked as a stonemason.  Janutolo recalls particular buildings being built in and around Hyden under the WPA while he was working for private contractors.  According to Janutolo, most of the stonework done in eastern Kentucky was done by Italian stonemasons.  He goes into the details of various building procedures.  Janutolo also worked as a coal miner at Wooton for ten years and mentions efforts to unionize the local mines in the late 1940s and 1950s.  A coal company destroyed some land of Janutolo's with a strip- mining operation and made no compensation because the mineral rights had been sold before he acquired the land.  Janutolo comments upon visits from the FNS nurses and his association with the FNS over the years.

  79OH141 FNS 48

  ALLYN J. SHEPHERD

 Date:          January 18, 1979

 Location:      Cincinnati, Ohio

 Interviewer:   Marian Barrett

 P.T.:          1 hr. 5 min.

Allyn Shepherd was an FNS courier in early 1942.  She describes her duties and tells of her experiences in making the rounds of the outpost centers.  Shepherd also talks about the influence of Mary Breckinridge as a presence at Wendover. She recalls being with the local people at square dances and comments upon their homemade instruments.  Detailed also are the home life of the nurses at the outpost centers and the relationship between the nurses and the local people.  As a postscript, the Appalachian Fair in Cincinnati is the subject of some commentary.

79OH142 FNS 49

DOROTHY CALDWELL

 Date:          January 18, 1979

 Location:      Burlington, Kentucky

 Interviewer:   Marian Barrett

 P.T.:          l hr. 35 min.

 Dorothy Caldwell first went to the FNS as a courier in 1935.  She discusses her experiences in taking care of the horses at Wendover and going on rounds with such persons as Betty Lester.  Caldwell explains what the FNS meant to couriers and expresses her feeling about the job she performed.  She also talks extensively about Mary Breckinridge, her administration of the FNS, and her life at Wendover.  After Caldwell left the FNS, she worked at Cincinnati General Hospital and was active in the Cincinnati FNS Committee.  In the interview she talks about Betty Lester's changing role as an FNS administrator.

 79OH143 FNS 50

 ANNE D. MULHAUSER

 Date:          January 17, 1979

 Location:      Cincinnati, Ohio

 Interviewer:   Marian Barrett

 P.T.:          45 min.

 Anne Mulhauser went to the FNS as a courier in 1935, her mother being on the FNS Board of Governors.  Mulhauser tells of her duties and of local attitudes toward the couriers.  She speaks of Mary Breckinridge as being very protective of the nurses and the couriers, at times declaring the river too high to be crossed on horseback and limiting activity after dark.  In discussing the local people, Mulhauser remarks upon the closeness between parents and children and comments upon the care most children received at home.  She talks a bit about "granny" midwives and how Mary Breckinridge managed to convince them to let the nurse-midwives practice in their area.  Recent FNS administration is reviewed, and changes in FNS operations are noted.  Mulhauser also mentions some Cincinnati contributors to the FNS.

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