Skip to main content

Animal Welfare: News

The 3Rs

REDUCTION: minimize how many animals are used.

REFINEMENT: use techniques and procedures that minimize pain and distress.

REPLACEMENT: substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.

Adapted from: Russel, WMS and RL Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare: England, 238 p.

For further information, please consult:

Need Help?

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact any of the following:

Valerie Perry
Head, Agricultural Information Center
Phone: (859) 257-2758

Rick Brewer
Director, Medical Center Research & Education
Phone: (859) 323-5296

Susan Foster Harper

Medical Center Reference Commons
Phone: (859) 257-0752

Mark Ingram
Medical Center Reference Commons
Phone: (859) 323-6568