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FAM 357: Adolescent Development: Citations and APA Style

Why Cite Sources?

There are two major reasons why it is important to cite all the sources you use in writing your LIS 600 paper.

1.  Giving credit to the owner of words and ideas.

Copyright laws protect everyone's original ideas when they are published either in print or on the internet.  In order to give authors their due credit, you cite the sources where you found their words and ideas.  If you use a person's exact words, you should put the words in quotation marks and indicate the source where you found them using the citation style prescribed in the American Psychological Association (APA) manual (link in box on the right).  If you are not copying another person's exact words but using their ideas in your paper, you are restating or paraphrasing their words and thoughts.  You still need to cite the source, but without quotation marks. 

Failure to cite words and ideas of others in your paper can lead to plagiarism.  Even if you plagiarize unintentionally by forgetting or misunderstanding how to cite, you can be accused of cheating, a serious offense at UK.  See Avoid Plagiarism for more help in this area.

2.  Adding credibility and further information sources to your paper.

Citations linked to a bibliography of works used in your paper provide substance and credibility to your writing.  Your instructor, and anyone else who reads your paper, will know that your consulted scholarly information sources in the process of formulating your analysis and composition.  The bibliography will also enable anyone interested in learning more about your topic to find additional information by reading books and/or articles you have cited.

American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual

Tools to help you with APA format

Your instructor for this course requires APA style for citations.  The links on this page will help you understand and create citations in that style. For help creating citations in other formats (which you may need for other courses) see the Style Guides and Manuals guide.

  • Son of Citation Machine: This tool is useful when your references are standard types of resources (e.g., books, articles (both online and in paper) and web pages) and if your are using MLA, APA, Turabian or Chicago style. Simply fill out a form for the type of style and resource you are using, and the Son of Citation Machine produces a properly formatted citation that you can paste into your bibliography. Depending on which style you are using, it also provides in-text parenthetical citations. It may be necessary to examine the specific manual for your style, however, for more complicated resources. Now available: a plagiarism and grammar check service.
  • APA Formatting and Style Guide from the American Psychological Association


When you use databases and other indexing tools, you'll find that you can usually save the citations you choose in the format required for your paper.

For example, in Academic Search Complete, you can save the citations you select into a folder, then save them as a file to your desktop choosing a Citation Format that is appropriate for your research paper.

You can also use the Export Manager to save your citation in any of the following formats:

  •  Direct Export in RIS format (e.g., CITAVI, EasyBib, EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zotero)
  •  Direct Export to EndNote Web
  •  Generic bibliographic management software
  •  Citations in BibTeX format
  •  Citations in MARC21 format
  •  Direct Export to RefWorks

Exporting to a bibliographic management software package allows you to save your resources for later searching and also allows you to format the citations and embed them into your paper. This is especially valuable for longer papers, including theses and dissertations, and for topics you return to over time.

As a UK student, staff or faculty member, you can download EndNote, one of the more powerful bib. management tools, at the UK Download site.

To learn how to use EndNote, see the UK Libraries' EndNote Help options and the Libraries' Workshops and Skills Classes Calendar, which includes EndNote workshops.

Need assistance with any aspect of using a formatting tool? Ask Us for assistance.