"Most drums are membranophones composed of a skin or skins (or plastic material) stretched over a frame or body-shell of wood, metal, earthenware or bone. Drums are sounded in two ways: percussion, where they are struck with the bare hands or with beaters, or shaken as in the case of rattle drums in India and Tibet; and friction, where the membrane, or a stick or cord in contact with it, is rubbed or the drum is whirled on a cord."
"Pitch is controlled by the diameter and tension of the drum-head. Volume and resonance depend on the amount of air inside the shell. The sound produced by drums is short; thus, any continuous sound can be produced only by rapid repetition."
Quote source: "Drums" in the Oxford Dictionary of Music, Oxford Press [online]. Accessed 04/13/2017.