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Research Guide for Dr. Walker's Courses: African American Entrepreneurship
Resources on industry, legal, entrepreneurial, and technology research as well as historical information related to African American entrepreneurship
Multi-disciplinary full-text database with more than 8,500 full-text periodicals, including more than 7,300 peer-reviewed journals. Indexes and abstracts more than 12,500 journals and a total of more than 13,200 publications including monographs, reports, and conference proceedings. Searchable cited references are provided for more than 1,400 journals.
Includes journals, magazines, and newspapers from ethnic and minority presses that comprise a full-text collection of more than 2.5 million articles from over 330 titles, from 1959 to current. Ethnicities include: African American/Caribbean/African; Arab/Middle Eastern; Asian/Pacific Islander; European/Eastern European; Hispanic; Jewish; and Native People .
Access to historic newspapers, including hundreds of African American newspapers. Search and view newspaper pages from 1880-1922 and find information about American newspapers published between 1690-present.
African American entrepreneurs are key contributors to the American economy. Faced with numerous challenges, many African American entrepreneurs have learned to transcend tough obstacles, leverage resources, and strategically pursue opportunities to achieve business success. This book captures the stories and mindsets of contemporary African Americans in their quest for the American dream.
In Black Entrepreneurs in America, Woodard lets us hear for the first time from many on the front lines of the American marketplace. Woodard begins the book with a summary of two hundred years of Black entrepreneurship in America, and then offers a lucid analysis of contemporary theories of Black business. Through in-depth interviews with twelve entrepreneurs, Woodard provides a powerful record of entrepreneurial vitality in a market that is often hostile and exclusive. Woodard covers businesses from across the United States representing diverse industries, including paper distribution, office furniture, computer management, construction, chemicals, ship building, communications, and systems engineering. Each business has a minimum gross revenue of $1 million per year and from ten to over two hundred employees. These twelve interviews make up the heart of the book, as Black entrepreneurs talk frankly about business challenges, Opportunities, and issues of community involvement. Woodard ends on a practical note with resources and advice for anyone contemplating an entrepreneurial future.
A comprehensive analysis of racial disparities and the determinants of entrepreneurial performance--in particular, why Asian-owned businesses on average perform relatively well and why black-owned businesses typically do not. Thirteen million people in the United States--roughly one in ten workers--own a business. And yet rates of business ownership among African Americans are much lower and have been so throughout the twentieth century. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, businesses owned by African Americans tend to have lower sales, fewer employees and smaller payrolls, lower profits, and higher closure rates. In contrast, Asian American-owned businesses tend to be more successful. In Race and Entrepreneurial Success, minority entrepreneurship authorities Robert Fairlie and Alicia Robb examine racial disparities in business performance. Drawing on the rarely used, restricted-access Characteristics of Business Owners (CBO) dataset compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau, Fairlie and Robb examine in particular why Asian-owned firms perform well in comparison to white-owned businesses and black-owned firms typically do not. They also explore the broader question of why some entrepreneurs are successful and others are not. After providing new comprehensive estimates of recent trends in minority business ownership and performance, the authors examine the importance of human capital, financial capital, and family business background in successful business ownership. They find that a high level of startup capital is the most important factor contributing to the success of Asian-owned businesses, and that the lack of startup money for black businesses (attributable to the fact that nearly half of all black families have less than $6,000 in total wealth) contributes to their relative lack of success. In addition, higher education levels among Asian business owners explain much of their success relative to both white- and African American-owned businesses. Finally, Fairlie and Robb find that black entrepreneurs have fewer opportunities than white entrepreneurs to acquire valuable pre-business work experience through working in family businesses.
Today, black-owned barber shops play a central role in African American public life. The intimacy of commercial grooming encourages both confidentiality and camaraderie, which make the barber shop an important gathering place for African American men to talk freely. But for many years preceding and even after the Civil War, black barbers endured a measure of social stigma for perpetuating inequality: though the profession offered economic mobility to black entrepreneurs, black barbers were obliged by custom to serve an exclusively white clientele. Quincy T. Mills traces the lineage from these nineteenth-century barbers to the bustling enterprises of today, demonstrating that the livelihood offered by the service economy was crucial to the development of a black commercial sphere and the barber shop as a democratic social space. Cutting Along the Color Line chronicles the cultural history of black barber shops as businesses and civic institutions. Through several generations of barbers, Mills examines the transition from slavery to freedom in the nineteenth century, the early twentieth-century expansion of black consumerism, and the challenges of professionalization, licensing laws, and competition from white barbers. He finds that the profession played a significant though complicated role in twentieth-century racial politics: while the services of shaving and grooming were instrumental in the creation of socially acceptable black masculinity, barbering permitted the financial independence to maintain public spaces that fostered civil rights politics. This sweeping, engaging history of an iconic cultural establishment shows that black entrepreneurship was intimately linked to the struggle for equality.
Selected Print Books
Some print books that might be helpful.
The History of Black Business in America: Capitalism, Race, Entrepreneurship by Juliet E. K. Walker
Despite almost four centuries of black independent self-help enterprises, the agency of African Americans in attempting to forge their own economic liberation through business activities and entrepreneurship has remained noticeably absent from the historical record. Juliet Walker's award-winning book is the only source that provides a detailed study of the continuity, diversity, and multiplicity of independent self-help economic activities among African Americans. This new, updated edition covers African American business history through the end of the Civil War and features the first comprehensive account of black business during this era.
Soul Food retells with candor the singular stories of fifty-two real entrepreneurs and it presents the practical ideas and principles culled from each. These are wisdom-filled snapshots detailing the lessons and triumphs of African American business builders. Soul Food fills a gap in the small business literature and presents the challenges and solutions that are of immediate significance to this large community of entrepreneurs. Written by a nationally recognized business consultant and speaker, this book covers all of the pathways to business success, but from a uniquely African American perspective.
African American Economic Development and Small Business Ownership by Kilolo Kijakazi
When searching for journal articles, you will notice the View Now button on many of your search results. Clicking on the View Now button will lead you to links for the full-text of the article or let you know that we do not have electronic full-text for that article.
Not sure where to get started? You might want to search the e-journals database to learn what journal titles we might own related to your area of interest. It's best to search the databases to the left when looking for individual articles, but browsing e-journal titles can be a good starting point to finding individual articles.