REDUCTION: minimize how many animals are used.
REFINEMENT: use techniques and procedures that minimize pain and distress.
REPLACEMENT: substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.
Adapted from: Russel, WMS and RL Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare: England, 238 p.
For further information, please consult:
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact any of the following:
Susan Foster Harper
Welcome to the Animal Welfare Research Guide. Our goal is to help with literature searches for IACUC protocols.
Here are some links to relevant organizations to get started:
These databases are among the most frequently used in literature searches involving animal research. Click on the Databases tab at the top of the page for a more complete list of databases with descriptions.