REDUCTION: minimize how many animals are used.
REFINEMENT: use techniques and procedures that minimize pain and distress.
REPLACEMENT: substitute animal models with non-animal techniques or lower organisms.
Adapted from: Russel, WMS and RL Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Universities Federation of Animal Welfare: England, 238 p.
For further information, please consult:
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact any of the following:
Head, Agricultural Information Center
Phone: (859) 257-2758
Assistant Director, Medical Center Research & Education
Phone: (859) 323-5296
Head, Medical Center Reference Commons
Phone: (859) 323-3983
Equine Librarian, John A. Morris Library
Phone: (859) 218-1147
Medical Center Reference Commons
Phone: (859) 323-6568
Welcome to the Animal Welfare Research Guide. Our goal is to help with literature searches for IACUC protocols.
Here are some links to relevant organizations to get started:
These databases are among the most frequently used in literature searches involving animal research. Click on the Databases tab at the top of the page for a more complete list of databases with descriptions.