"The original design of the turntable was as a machine intended for sound reproduction, the has become a popular instrument for musical creation, spurred by the growth of hip-hop and DJ culture. Scratching is a hip-hop music technique of creating musical sounds using a turntable by manually pulling and pushing a record rapidly under the phonograph’s stylus. Scratching is commonly thought to have been invented c by GrandWizzard Theodore [Theodore Livingston] (b ), then a protégé of DJ Grandmaster Flash (b ). Flash, DJ Jazzy Jay (b ), Red Alert [Fred Crute] (b ), and others popularized the technique at community events in the 1970s as part of a crowd-pleasing DJ performance called “scratch-and-mix.”
In the 2000s scratching and related turntable techniques have been taught formally. Jam Master Jay cofounded the Scratch DJ Academy in New York in , while Berklee College of Music and other institutions offer courses in turntable techniques. Although DJs have moved from playing records in nightclubs to turntable-controlled MP3s using interfaces like Serato Scratch, scratching and related turntable techniques are still used prevalently with MP3 interfaces, CDJs (turntable-style CD players), and traditional records."
Katz, Mark. "Men, women, and turntables: gender and the DJ battle," The Musical Quarterly, v.89, no.4, (Winter 2006), pp.580-599.